Were the Melungeons really found first on Newmans Ridge in East Tennessee? Were they really the only group of people called Melungeon, Melungin, Malungeon etc., or were they recognized in many places as Melungeons before the Tennessee group settled on Newmans Ridge?
These Articles listed below mention the Molungeons of Virginia. Can there be any difference in the Melungeons of North Carolina or Tennessee?
That is the State of Virginia recognizing these Molungeons as neither white, mulatto or negro but in a class of their own.
From the Richmond Whig. Letter from Hon. John M. Botts
Date: March 26, 1859
Paper: Easton Gazette
Article type: Letters
......when the Sheriff came to count up the votes at the close of the polls, they counted but five -- and if I had received the vote of one ''Molungeon,'' and he had been authorized by the Constitution to vote, and had 'had' a majority of only one--- it would have been difficult to tell, whether I was most indebted for my election to the "Molungeon" or to the Chief Justice of the U.S.; and if my competitor had received six "Molungeon" votes, or the votes of six worthless and degraded locofocos (supposing they could be any such) they would have more than balanced these five of the first men of the State could boast...........
THE ORATORICAL OGRES AT WORK
GOGGIN SWALLOWED WHOLE
Date: March 28, 1859
Location: Alabama Paper: Daily Confederation
Thirteen congressional electors, fifty senatorial electors, and three hundred and sixty county electors have been notified to hold themselves in readiness to repel the Dragoon of Rockbridge. Botts too, will dash to the rescue at the head of a noble band of "Molungeons and Eboshins" as soon as the weather becomes sufficiently warm to render his odoriferous forces efficient.
The Slave Power; its Character, Career, and Probable Designs. By JE...
Continental monthly: devoted to... - Cornell University - Jan 1, 1863
"Whether their own children were sold may be imagined from an anecdote long current in Virginia, relative to ex-Governor Wise, who, in a certain law case where he was opposed by a Northern trader, decided of a certain slave, that the chattel, being a mulatto, was of more value than 'a molungeon.' And what, in the name of God, is a molungeon?' inquired the astonished 'Northern man." 'A mulatto' replied Wise, ' is the child of a female house-servant by 'young master' --a molungeon is the offspring of a field hand by a Yankee peddler."
Mr. Cairnes has, no doubt, not often heard of mulattoes--they constitute the great majority of Virginia slaves. But did he ever hear of a 'molungeon'?
From Our Own Correspondent Fredericksburg,
January 10, 1864
"the "Government organ," however, announces that the observed of all observers were four negroes, "of genteel exteriour, and with the manners "of gentlemen, who joined in the throng that 'crowded the Executive Mansion, and were coridaly received by the President of the United State,'' The Molungeon Chronicle adds; -- We are not aware that anybody was hurt on the occasion, and we rejoice that we have a President who is a democrat in fact, as well as by nature."
May 25, 1869
Summary: Declared that all eligible voters have the duty to vote on election day to ensure the defeat of certain sections of the Underwood constitution and to elect Walker as Governor. Wanted to ensure at least some form of control for white Virginians in the state.
Full Text of Article:The election which will take place on the 6th day of July next, by appointment of the President, will decide whether the people of this State are to be cursed with the Underwood abomination, called a Constitution, as it came from the hands of the Molungeon Convention, or whether it will be modified by having the test-oath and disfranchising clauses stricken out -- whether Walker or Wells will be our Governor, and whether proper men will be elected to represent the State in the Legislature.
-- Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Battles and Sketches of the Army of Tennessee - Page 511
-Thursday 2d July 1863
--Bluegrass Confederate: The Headquarters Diary of Edward O. Guerrant By Edward O. Guerrant
Came on to Mr Hortons for dinner—found him in a tornado furiosus-against Virginians, who fed his grass &c. and in ecstatic panegyrics of all Kentuckians—”all of whom were “interesting” gentlemen”—& no “malungens”. ...
The question is how did this man writing in the South Carolina paper determine they were ''molungeons'' caputured that day -- and how did he determine the difference between the ''molungeon'' and the bright mulatto? Was it the difference in their clothing -- skin color -- facial features or what? Were these Virginia Molungeons different from the Tennessee Melungeons? Or were they kin?
THE EMASSEEES AND MALUNJINSOne tribe of Indians and a community of mixed breed Indians were unmolested by
the whites. These were the Uchees or Emassees, kinsman of the Seminoles or
Creeks, who lived at the mouth of the Emassee or O'Mussee or Mercer creek near
Columbia, and the Malunjins, a mixed breed community residing some three to six
miles northeast of Dothan toward Webb even as late as 1865. Where the Malunjins
came from nobody knows; where they were dispersed to is the limbo of forgotten
men. B. P. Poyner, Sr., father of Houston County Probate Judge, S.P.Poyner, was
born in the Malunjins' community. Some of these mixed breed Indians brought milk to Mr. Poyner's mother while he was an infant. The Emassees were allied by
affinity with the Creeks and Seminoles yet during all of Alabama's territorial
and state days were friendly to the whites. Only a squatter white family settled
here and there and lived in old Henry County prior to 1817. Save for these
squatters there were no white settlers in Henry County at the time of the Creek War of 1812-13.
The Alabama Lawyer: Official Organ State Bar of Alabama
By Alabama State Bar
Published by The Bar, 1942