Friday, June 8, 2018

Melungeons - A Branch of the Lumbee Tribe


At the turn of the century Historians, Ethnologist, the Smithsonian and even Congress recognized the Melungeons as a branch of the Croatan/Lumbee Indians.  Perhaps this is why they appear to have been dubbed 'Mysterious' people who had forgotten their ancestry. 

Our GOVERNMENT being forced to recognize and support another tribe of Indians certainly would have tried to detach the Melungeon and Redbones from the Croatans. 

63D CONGRESS 3d Session 
SENATE DOCUMENT No. 677
INDIANS OF NORTH CAROLINA


LETTER FROM  THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
TRANSMITTING, IN RESPONSE TO A SENATE RESOLUTION 
OF JUNE 30, 1914, A REPORT ON THE CONDITION 
AND TRIBAL RIGHTS OF THE INDIANS 
OF ROBESON AND ADJOINING COUNTIES OF NORTH CAROLINA
JANUARY 5, 1915.--Referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs and ordered to be printed 

Exhibit B7


LETTER OF HAMILTON MCMILLAN TO INDIAN OFFICE, JULY 17, 1890.

RED SPRINGS, N. C., July 17, 1890.T. J. MORGAN, Esq., Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington.
        MY DEAR SIR: Your letter of July 14 ultimo just to hand. The communication and report from the Bureau of Ethnology to which you refer were never received, and your letter just received conveys the first intimation of their having been sent. Had they been received I would have responded with pleasure.
        I inclose to you to-day a copy of a pamphlet containing much of interest in this connection. The pamphlet was written very hastily nearly two years ago in order to give the North Carolina Legislature some information, as the Croatans were asking some legislation in their behalf.
        The Croatan Tribe lives principally in Robeson County, N. C., though there are quite a number of them settled in counties adjoining in North and South Carolina. In Sumter County, S. C., there is a branch of the tribe and also in East Tennessee. In Lincoln County, N. C., there is another branch, settled there long ago. Those living in East Tennessee are called "Melungeans," a name also retained  by them here, which is a corruption of Melange, a name given them by early settlers (French), which means mixed. The pamphlet sent you will outline their history as far as it can be discovered from their traditions. In regard to their exodus from Roanoke Islandtheir traditions are confirmed by maps recently discovered in Europe by Prof. Alexander Brown, member of the Royal Historical Society of England. These maps are dated in 1608 and 1610, and give the reports of the Croatans to Raleigh's ships, which visited our coast in those years. These maps will be lithographed and published in a book, now being prepared by Prof. Brown. The particulars of the exodus preserved by tradition here are strangely and strongly corroborated by these maps. There can be little doubt of the fact that the Croatans in Robeson County and elsewhere are the descendants of the Croatans of Raleigh's day. In 1885 I got the North Carolina Legislature to recognize them as Croatans and give them separate public schools. In 1887 I got $500 a year from the State for a normal school for them for two years. In 1889 the appropriation was extended two years longer.
        Their normal school needs help--at least $500 more is needed. The appropriation to the public schools amounts to less than a dollar a head per annum.
        If you can aid them in the way desired we would be glad. They are citizens of the United States and entitled to the educational privileges enjoyed by other citizens, but those advanatges are not much.
Respectfully,Hamilton McMillan


  • "A hundred years ago a colony of Croatans settled in eastern Tennessee, on Newman's Ridge, in Hancock county.  They can't tell today where they came from, for tradition over 50 years isn't worth anything.  These are the people called Melungeons.  They are similar in racial characteristics to the Croatans, and Dr. Swan M. Burnett, a distinguished scholar and scientitst has traced by family names the connection between the Melungeons and the Croatans.




  • Red Springs, NC  Oct 12, 1889
        Mr McDonald Furman

  • The name among them of Blanx or Blanc is French. The early Huguenot emigrants of that name came from the Department of the Mosell and those of the family who changed the Blanc to White, its English synonym, was designated as the 'Mosell" Whites and the name is now changed to Musslewhite. The French name of Bressi is now Bracy and Turbeville is now Troublefield. The Braceys and Troublefields live on the border of North Carolina and South Carolina and never intermarried with the Croatans or "Melange".


  • Henry Berry Lowrie takes his Christian name from Henry Berry one of the lost colonists of Roanoke as you will see by -------? to list in pamphlet. Many of the Lowrie's settled in Robeson - others went to the French Broad in Western N.C., and those in Robeson claim that David Lowrie Swain Ex Gov. and James Lowrie Robinson late Lt Gov of this State were of their stock. The tribe once stretched from Cape Fear to Pee Dee and the Redbones of your section are a part of the tribe as are the "Melungeons" of East Tennessee. The French immigrants callled the half breeds Melange or Mixed and the term evidently has been changed to "Melungeons".  [. [2]


  • Croatan Indians. The legal designation in North Carolina for a people evidently of mixed Indian and white blood, found in various e. sections of the state, but chiefly in Robeson co., and numbering approximately 5,000.  ...... Across the line in South Carolina are found a people, evidently of similar origin, designated "Red bones." In portions of w. N. C. and E. Temn. are found the so-called "Melungeons" (probably from French melangi', 'mixed') or "Portuguese," apparently an offshoot from the Croatan proper, and in Delaware are found the "Moors." All of these are local designations for peoples of mixed race with an Indian nucleus differing in no way from the present mixed-blood remnants known as Pamunkey, Chicka- hominy, and Nansemond Indians in Virginia, excepting in the more complete loss of their identity. In general, the physical features and complexion of the persons of this mixed stock incline more to the Indian than to the white or negro. See Mi-tis, Mixed bloods. [3]


  • The Croatan applied for recognition by the United States as Cherokee, but it was denied and the Cherokee acknowledge no relationship, having visited the Croatan country on a tour of inspection. There is a queer offshoot of the Croatan known as "Malungeons," in South Carolina, who went there from this state ; another the "Redbones," of Tennessee. Mr. Mooney has made a careful study of both of these branches also. [4]


  • Though these people principally reside in Robeson county there are settlements of them in both the Carolinas and in East Tennessee, where they are known as Melungeans, a corruption of the French Melange, or mixed, a  description of them given by the early French settlers.  [5]


  • There are some of these Croatoans on Newman’s ridge, in Tennessee.  [6] 


  • At one time the Croatans were known as 'Redbones,' and there is a street in Fayetteville so called because some of them once lived on it. They are known by this name in Sumpter County, S. C., where they are quiet and peaceable, and have a church of their own. They are proud and high-spirited, and caste is very strong among them. [7] 


  • There is in Hancock county, Tennessee, a tribe of people known by the local name of Malungeons or Melungeons. Some say they are a branch of the Croatan tribe, others that they are of Portuguese stock. [7] 


  • The Croatan tribe lives principaly in Robeson county, North Carolina, though there is quite a number of them settle in counties adjoining in North and South Carolina. In Sumter county, South Carolina, there is a branch of the tribe, and also in east Tennessee. In Macon county, North Carolina, there is another branch, settled there long ago. those living in east Tennessee are called "Melungeons", a name also retained by them herewhich is corruption of 'Melange', a name given them by early settlers (French), which means mixed.''  [8] 


  • In 1897, Mr. Mooney wrote to Charles McDonald Furman that, "He felt that the Croatans, Redbones, Melungeons, Moors, and Portuguese were all local names for mixed Indian races along the Atlantic seaboard, with westward drift into the mountains." And stated, "It would be worth while of local investigators to go into the subject systematically. I think possibly the Indian remnants may have married with the convict apprentice importation of early colony days as well as with the free Negro element." [9] 


  • Since the above communications was read before the Society I have received from several sources valuable information in regard to the Melungeons; but the most important contribution bearing on the subject, as I believe, is the little pamphlet published by Hamilton Mc Millan, A. M., on “Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony” (Wilson, N.C., 1888). Mc Millan claims that the Croatan Indians are the direct descendant of this colony. What connection I consider to exist between the Melungeons and the Croatan Indians, as well as other material I have accumulated in regard to the Melungeons, will be made the subject of another communication which is now in preparation.    * *Read before the Society at its regular meeting, February 5, 1889.   [10] 


  • All these above families not only settled in Robeson County but also scattered further south and west through central South Carolina. In fact, in central South Carolina some names show up from that original northern center in Granville County which one does not find in Cumberland and Robeson Counties in that period. I presume that they came directly from Granville County into South Carolina. These are families like Taylor, Hicks, Bunch, and Strickland. Many of these northern migrants married into the Cheraw and Peedee and almost absorbed these native South Carolina tribes. Later in South Carolina other family names show up - Willis, Ware, Dial - who appear to be Indians of this same “northern” stock. However, we cannot find these family names in the north. These family names may have originated with blacks, whites, or native Indians who married into these scattered Indian Families.

  • ...this migration did not stop Georgia and Florida but continued west and in census records in the 1830’s in western Louisiana you begin to see names of Indian families from South Carolina.  As far as I can tell, most of these families moved on further west into east Texas. The Bass’, Dials, Wares, Willis’, etc., particularly, tarried awhile in western Louisiana and then moved on to east Texas. However, while they were in Louisiana they intermarried quite heavily with a group of Indians who were the remnants of small tribes from the Mobile, Alabama area - Chatot, Bayagoula, and others; that is to say, individuals from these South Carolina families married native Indians to form what is known by whites in that area as the “Redbones” of western Louisiana. This is quite a prolific group. I do not know how this group of people refers to themselves. I simply know that local nickname for them. I have heard that some of them identify as Choctaws and some as Spanish, but I cannot verify this. I do know that Indians coming in from South Carolina married into this local group and then moved on west leaving members of their families there in western Louisiana. Some of these same South Carolina Indians - Hicks, Strickland, Bunch, etc. – moved northwest into east Tennessee in the 1830’s and 1840’s. There they joined another stream of Indian pioneer of this same Granville County, North Carolina stock moving south from Newman’s Ridge on the Tennessee - Virginia border.   [11]

Thursday, June 7, 2018

Loose Ends & Connections

Halifax County Road Orders

21 Mar 1771 Road Order: George Combs appointed Surveyor of the Road leading from Boyd’s Road to Roberts’ Road...ordered that he, with male tithables belonging to Moses Hendrick, William Echols, Sr., John Anderson, Mead Anderson, Shadrach Gowing, Harry Hereford, John Chapman, John Hood, Nipper Adams, William Donathan, Thomas Spencer, William Mays, Nathan Sullins, Charles Henderson, George Wood, George Stubblefield, Daniel Easely, Stephen Easely, Joshua Adams, Thomas Lovelace, Samuel Wilson, George Brown, Champ Gibson, and William Chandler, do forthwith lay open and clear the said Road, and they then return to their former road. (Halifax County, VA, Court Orders, 7:80)

Champ Gibson in Halifax Co., 1771 with Shadrach Gowing, William Donathan and William Echols.  Champ Gibson is found in Henry Co., Va., on the will of Thomas Gibson along with Lambert Dodson and Joel Gibson, and later in Rockingham Co., North Carolina across the line, with the Goins families -- called the Rockingham Indians.  Champ's daughter, Jemima Gibson gave power of attorney to Tirey Gibson in Hawkins County, Tennessee to settler her father's estate in Rockingham Co., NC.

William Donathan  granted 200 acres in Louisa County on both sides of Gibby's Creek adjoining his own land and George Gibson on 7 August 1752 [Patents 31:183 - The Donathans moved to Wilkes Co., then to Stokes Co, NC [also Bath Co., Ky] Bryson Gibson's DNA matches the Donathans.
Philip Dennam/Denham, was taxable on his own tithe and John Going's tithe in Goochland County in 1754 in the list of William Burton [Tithables, 1730-1755. He was living in Halifax County, Virginia, when he and William Donathan were among those ordered to clear a road from Burches Creek to Mirey Creek.   [Gibby Gibson gave to  Hannah Dennam cattle and a boy slave named Jack during her lifetime  1727 Charles City County.]

William Echols daughter Hannah, married to Vardry McBee found in the records below with Jordan Gibson, most likely the son of Gilbert of Louisa Co., Va.

Silas McBeee, son of Vardry and Hannah was born November 24, 1765 in Halifax County, Virginia, married Catherine Cates Abt. 1797 in Logan County, Kentucky, and died January 06, 1845 in Pontotoc County, Mississippi.

LOGAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY

1799 - Jordan Gibson vs Solomon Penrod
Capias order to take Solomon Penrod(?) to answer Jordan Gibson – Logan Co. KY Loose Records

1799 -The county is made debtor to Jordon Gibson for 1 wolf scalp £8

Book H, p. 11-12 Sept 29, 1801 JORDAN GIBSON (Logan Co., KY) to Robert Stacey (Spartanburg) waters Cherokee Cr of Broad R.  Witness Amos Austell and Samuel Austell.  Signed JORDAN GIBSON's mark.  Wit. oath, Oct. 26, 1801 Amos Austell to John Lipscomb  Rec. Dec 5, 1801
-------------------
1800 Jordan Gibson to administer the estate of John Turner deceased

Jordan Gibson enters 100 acres of land on Gum Lick Creek in Logan County

May 18, 1801 Order book 1A page 193
Ordered that Jordan Gibson be allowed 100 acres of land…to wit Gurdon Gibson…Gum Lick creek Order Book 2 page 189

Jan 1802 ”Gordon” Gibson enters 100 acres of land on the waters of Green Lick Creek

Assessment(?) of the property of John Turner deceased sold out of the county March 20, 1802 Gurdon Gibson administrator Order book 1A page 193

An inventory and appraisement of the estate of John Turner deceased - An account of the property of John Turner deceased sold by Silas McBee Order Book 2 page 352-353
[It appears that the McBee family and Jordan Gibson removed to Logan County, Kentucky in the part that became Christian County.   https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/McBee-114
----------------------------------
Spartanburg Co., S.C. Deed Book Abstracts A-T  1785- 1827

p. 260-261 Book B. Jan. 29, 1787: John Sanders (Louisa Co.[VA]) to Jordan Gibson (same); for £10 7 s VA money sold a wagon and harness for four horses. Witness John Brown, John Boswell, and Henry Gibson. Signed John Sanders.
[Deed] Book B, p. 114-116, March 17, 1788 Vardry McBee (Spartanburg) to David Allen [father-in-law of Henry Gibson] 250 ac on both sides of Goacher Cr of Thickety Cr.  Wit Joseph Morriss and JORDAN GIBSON.  Signed Vardry and Hannah McBee]
Sept. 1788
State against Jordan Gibson. On an indictment. The Grand Jury presenting him for Bastardy. It is therefore ordered that a Capias issue for his appearance in Court to answer to the said Indictment.
December 1788
State against Jordan Gibson. On a Breach of the Peace. The defendant appeared in his own person pleads Guilty and the Court having received exculpatory affidavits, fine the defendant one shilling and costs of suit. John Lefever came into Court and entered himself bail for the fees in the above case, acknowledged before Wm. Lancaster, D.C.

Spartanburg Co., S.C.  Minutes of the County Court  1785-1799

Ordered that the child Durrel [Burrell?] McBee which was pretended to be bound to Vardry McBee be delivered to the care of its mother Rhoda McBee, alias Gibson & Jordan Gibson her Husband.
p. 325-326 Book B.Dec. 2, 1789 Nathan Gibson (Spartanburg) to Henry Gibson (same) ; for 40 L sold following ; a large bay horse 7 years old, 2 feather beds and furniture, 3 cows and calves, 2 heffers, 3 young stears, 17 hogs, a large iron pot, a dutch oven,6 pewter pleats, 2 "diches" for basons, and a crib of corn. Witness John Sanders, George Gibson, Masten Sanders, and Lewis Sanders. Signed Nathan Gibson's mark. Wit. Oath Dec. 21, 1789 Lewis Sanders to Wm. Smith.
 p. 369-371 Book D.Dec. 20, 1795  David Humphrey and wife Jane (Spartanburg) to Henry Gibson (same); for 60 L sterling sold 185 ac on both sides Gocher's  Cr; part of 200 ac grant Dec. 6, 1771 North Carolina to Hugh Moore who sold to Charles Ray who sold to WilliamThompson and sold by his son Sevan Thompson to David Humphrey; 15 ac from grant excluded from this sale on N side of Goucher's Cr. And on E corner of grant.
Jan. 19th 1793 - Gideon Gibson against Nathan Gibson. Case. Dismissed at equal costs.
October 10, 1797 John Lefever (Spartanburgh County) to SarahWooten a chesnut horse with star and a sorrel stud cold with small star.Witness Rice Ross, Gideon Gibson, and Jordan Gibson
Witness George Gibson, Young Allen, and William Wilkins. Signed  David Humphrey and Jane's mark. Witness oath April 12, 1796 Young Allen to John Lipscomb.Rec. May 15, 1796
p. 127-128 Book F.April 29, 1797David Allen (Spartanburg) to Young Allen (same) ; for 50 L sterling sold 150 ac ; border :Gocher's Cr, George Gibson, David Allen's Spring Br, and Jones; part of 543 ac grant Oct. 6, 1788 Gov. Thomas Pinckney to David Allen . Witness David Jones and Willis Allen.Signed David Allen's mark. Wit. Oath July 15, 1797 David Allen to John Lipscomb.Rec. Oct. 20, 1798
===========================================================================
Spartanburg Co., S.C.  Minutes of the County Court  1785-1799
George Gibson & Lewis Sanders as evidences in the case Jordan Gibson against John Sanders, on oath in open Court was allowed, to wit, the said George s 15 for 6 days attendance and the said Lewis 17/ & d 6 for 7 days attendance, and s 33 d 4 for mileage.
Jan. 17th 1798 George Gibson proved 4 days attendance as a witness in the case Nathaniel Wofford against William Vincent, at two shillings & six pence per day.
July 18th 1798 George Gibson proved 7 days attendance as a witness in the case Nathaniel Wofford against William Vincent
July 20, 1798 William McGowen  against George Gibson. Appeal . Ordered that this case be remanded to the Justice from whence it came upon payment of costs.
Spartanburg Co., S.C. Deed Book Abstracts A-T  1785- 1827                                                                                                                 
p. 161-162 Book K.Oct. 11, 1802 Henry Gibson (Spartanburg) to Jarrett Patterson (same); For $300 sold (148ac?) ; SW end of tract (100 ac?) ; border : Corner marked ID and C ; on Goucher's Cr. And 48 ac bordering Ezekiel Howard and David Allen. Witness George Gibson and Ezekiel Sullivan. Signed Henry Gibson's mark. Wit. Oath Oct. 11, 1803 George Gibson to John Lipscomb.Rec. Oct. 16, 1805.Dower renounced Nancy Gibson to John Lipscomb Nov. 2, 1804
p. 2-4 Book L & M.Oct. 11, 1803 Henry Gibson (Spartanburg) to Jarrett Patterson (same) ; for $250 sold 180 ac on both sides of Goocher's Cr. ; "there is a line made between Jarret Patterson and George Gibson" ; part of 200 ac grant Dec. 6, 1771 North Carolina to Hugh Moore who sold to Charles Ray and sold to "William Thomson Swan Thomson's son her at " sold  to David Humphreys who sold to Henry Gibson.Witness George Gibson to Ezekiel Sullivan .Signed Henry Gibson's mark.Wit. oath Oct. 11, 1803 George Gibson to John Lipscomb. Rec. Mar. 6, 1809

============================================================================
1800 Spartanburg Co., S.C.
George Gibson.......1-0-0-1-0....males...............................1-0-1-0-0....females
=============================================================================

1810 Spartanburg Co., S.C.
George Gibson.....1-1-0-0-1   males..............................3-0-0-1-0  females
=========================================================================
Spartanaburg Co., SC Will Abstracts 1787-1840
Pg.55 In the Court of Ordinary the 19th day of Feb. 1810 granted a citation to Mayveil (?) Griffen on the estate of Ignatious Griffin decd...
Granted admn. on the estate of Ignatius Griffen decd to Mayvell Griffin...Hugh Moore & Wm. Gibson securities...
Pg.6 Austust 6th 1810 Hugh Moore returned in behalf of Mavel Griffin Admx of Ignatius Griffin decd, Inventory sale.........
Pg. 8 Nov. 6, 1810
Mavel Griffin gave bond with Young Allen security for her future Admin. in the Estate of Ignatius Griffin decd, in place of George Gibson....(there appears to have been more to these entries but for some reason it was left out)
Pg.3 March 4th 1811
Mavel Griffin Adminx. of Ignatius Griffin decd, made an annual return......

=========================================================
George & Abigail Gibson Virginia W 8852
[Todd County formed 1820 from Logan and Christian Counties.
Todd Co., KY On the Oct. 19, 1832 personally appeared before me in open court, George Gibson, a resident of the foresaid county and commonwealth, aged 67 the 14th of last month, who being duly sworn according to law doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the above mentioned benefits.That he entered the service of the U.S. in a company commanded by Capt. John White, the old officers were Col. Abrey, and Major Srmstreet commanded by Gen. Weeden.He entered the service a short time before he was 16 years of age and served 3 months under above mentioned officers.He returned home at the end of 3 months and after some months, the time not recollected, he again entered the service under Capt. William Harris and Lt. Anderson and served 3 months and returned home again and after some months the precise time not recollected he was again called into service under Capt. Holt, he was drafted for 3 months each ( but he does not recollect that he remained that length of time the last tour as he was discharged a few days after the defeat of Cornwallis and he does not recollect the time he left service but knows it was but a short time before the Treaty of Peace.)The Col. and Maj. of the 2nd. tour were Col. Taylor and Maj. Batuse of the 3rd tour forgotten the name of Col. his best impression is that it was Col. Taylor and Maj. Baswell. He resided in Louisa Co., VA. at the time he entered the service and during the War when at home he was drafted as he supposes each time he recollects that his company was laid off in divisions and when the division to which he belonged was called on he was compelled to go.
He marched through Hanover Co.,to Richmond, he was stationed at a place called the Mashin Hills and he marched through King William Co. We lay at Sewens old field about 4 miles from Glouster. Some days before the Battle at York and defeat of Cornwallis on the North side of the river he was a guard. the day proceeding the night on which the battle was fought at York and Gloucester he among the balance of the guards was ordered to rest and meet at headquarters at the old field when he arrived there the main army had left there and gone to Gloucester, we were then ordered to march to Gloucester, we went but stopped on the way to draw cartridges which there the firing commenced the we started and went about 1/2 mile and halted in the night and inquiring was being made whether any man among us could speak French language. It was ascertained that no one among us could speak that language and on account of the danger of not being distinguished we were commanded to lie down on our arms . We remained there until the Battle was over whilst there we could hear the bullets over us. He knew no regular officers while out that he now recollects except Gen. Lafayette.He has no documentary proof or evidence of his service that he knows of no person whose testimony he could produce who can testify to his service.He saw the British stack their arms at Cornwallis defeat, he rode a horse from there taken from one of Tarletons horsemen about 4 miles. He hereby relinquishes every claim except the present for a pension and declares that his name is not on the pension roll of any agency of any state whatever.
                                                                                                                          George Gibson

Gibsons & Goins



GIBSON & GOINS



November 1741 the court presented George Gibson and George Gibson, Jr., for not going to church.  In July 1745 Phillis Goeing (Gowen) petitioned him concerning her children, but he failed to answer the petition so the court ordered the churchwardens to bind them out. (George Gibson is the son of Gibby Gibson and a brother to Gilbert Gibson of Louisa County.)

Merchant's Account Book: Hanover County, Virginia 1743-44

Magazine of Virginia History

Michael Gowing Jr.
David Gowing
Edward Gowing
Michael Gowing Sr.
Thomas Gibson
Gilbert Gibson





Granville—Willm Eaton Esqr Coll: of Granville county His Regimt consists of 8 companys 734 besides officers 2 Captns Simms & Jones are moved away the others Resigned He thinks the fines on delinquents should be fixed by a Court Martial. No arms or ammunition in the Stores There are about 12 or 14 Sapona men and as many women & children in the county ( Report concerning the militia in each county of North Carolina 1754  Volume 05, Pages 161-163)
Muster Roll of the Regiment in Granville County under the Comand of Col. William Eaton as taken at a General Muster of the said Regiment 8th October 1754 William Person, Lieut. Col. James Paine, Major 

78. Thomas Gowen, Malatto
79. Michael Gowen, Malatto
80. Edward Gowen, Malatto
81. Robert Davis, Malatto
82. William Burnel, Malatto
20. William Chavers Junior, Negro
21. William Chavers, Mul. ( William Chavers/Chavis wife is the daughter of Gibby Gibson, sister of Gilbert Gibson in Louisa County, Va., and widow of George Smith)
22. Gilbert Chavers, Mulatto
It seems if there were 12-14 Saponi men on the lands of William Eaton that those above identified as 'Malatto' listed in his Muster Roll are very likely the Saponi men.

''After remaining a short time in North Carolina Captain Baxter marched back to South Carolina and joined Colonel Culp who joined General Francis Marion. After a few months service under Colonel Culp, he Colonel Culp returned home and was killled by the Tories said to be commanded by Mike Gowen and Thomas Gibson. Captain Baxter  immediately went in pursuit of them, we found Mike Gowen at Cade's Mill in Robeson County in this State & he was shot.''
---
''At the Rockdale mills, there lived some free mulattoes by the name of Turner, who were Tories and very wicked. The troops engaged in this expedition, having been disbanded, and Captain Culp having gone home, some of these mulattoes followed him to his own house, called him out at night, and accused him of whipping one of their brothers. He refused at first to come out, and they threatened to burn the house; but still he refused, until they began to apply the fire; then he came out between two young men, one on each side, holding them by the arms, and begging for his life; but the Turners told the young men that, If they did not wish to share the same fate with Culp, they must leave him. They did so; and he was Immediately shot down in his own yard. It is said that they not only murdered him, but his family also, and then burned his house, which stood about a mile below Hunt's Bluff. Old Major Pouncey's wife was Culp's daughter...."


''Deponent was on his way to join General Gate's army (under Command of Capt Hathorn) and was within hearing of the Cannon at the battle at Camden South Carolina but before they reached the field of battle his Capt heard of General Gate's defeat and retreated towards North Carolina and In their way fell in with a party of Tories with whom they had a hot skirmish; this he says was on Big Pedee near Mares Bluff [sic, Mars Bluff] that there were a good many of the tories killed on that occasion; he says he had a brother Nathan White who was a regular soldier in General Gate's army; the deponent was with Gates' army a few days before his defeat and General Gates was pointed our to him by his brother; he cannot state why they were not in the battle of Camden. On the retreat of Capt Hathorn's company on the south side of Big Pedee they encountered a small body of tories under command of Capt Thomas Gibson and defeated them. That from great length of time and very imperfect memory deponent cannot recollect all the incidents of the war. He was with his company under Command of Capt Hathorn and another Company under command of Capt Clayton in a severe skirmish with the tories at Kelly's cowpens in South Carolina; that he removed to South Carolina Saint Bartholomews Parish in Colleton District about the eleventh or twelfth of March one thousand seven hundred and ninety and has resided in the said Parish and District from that time to this.''
http://www.southerncampaign.org/pen/r11401.pdf




Marion County, South Carolina
William Middleton Sr. left a sizeable estate (worth about 4,000
pounds not counting land), inventoried and appraised by William
Middleton, Jr., Gideon Gibson, Sr., and Gideon Gibson, Jr. on April 24,
1773. An interesting list of debtors to the estate includes:
Wm Alston due the Estate for Pork......55"--"-
Gideon Gibson Sr Note to the Estate...157"--"-<----------------------------- br="">George Gibson due to the Estate........26"--"-<----------------------------- br="">John Berry by Acct due the Estate.......5"--"-
Jordan Gibson Sr. Acct.................17"--"- <---------------------------- br="">Benj. Blackmans acct.......96/3
Peter Keighleys acct.......25/
Isaac Nevils acct..........L 5
Thomas Brewintons acct.....60/
Frederick Jones acct...... L 10
Jacob Goings acct dues said Estate......7"10"- <---------------------------- font="">




1785. Will of Moses Bass of Prince Georges Parish, George Town Dist, Province of SC, being indisposed in Body.... to MOURNING GOING, dau of JACOB GOING, one cow marked with a cross & over bit & undr bit in one ear and cross & whole under nick in the other ear; to SARAH GOING, dau of JACOB GOING, one cow marked in the above mentioned mark; to ELIZABETH GOING, dau of JACOB GOING, one cow marked with a cross & undr bit & over bit in each ear and branded ME; to ANNE GOING, dau of JACOB GOING, one heifer marked with a cross and under bit & over bit in each ear branded ME; to CYNTHA GOING, dau of JACOB GOING, one heifer yearling marked with a cross & over bit & under bit in each ear & branded ME; to my beloved cousin Jeremiah Bass, tract of 100 ac granted to John Smith, and one negro named Peter, one negro woman named Fann, one negro boy named Jack with their increase; my wife Elizabeth Bass to have the use of said plantation & tract of land granted to John Smith her lifetime and the use of negroes Peter, Fann & Jack & their increase her life time; to my beloved cousin Wright Bass, the plantation, mill, & tract of land containing 444 ac that I now live on, one negro woman Jane, my wife Elizabeth Bass to have the use of the plantation, mill & tract of land and negro woman her lifetime; to Henry Harison, son of James Harison, one negro woman Cate & increase, my wife to have the use of the negro woman her lifetime; to JOSEPH GOING, JUNR, one negro girl named Judah & increase, my wife to have the use her life time; to my beloved wife Elizabeth Bass, one negro man named Jack, one woman named Florah, one woman named Nan, one boy named Isum, one boy named Roger, and my cattle, about 110 head, branded ME, all my stock of horses & mares, all my household furniture & plantation tools, 26 head of sheep, and my hogs, also negro girl Violet; to JACOB GOING, a plantation of 50 ac granted to John Crawford; I appoint my wife Elizabeth Bass and my friend Luke Whitefield and James Harison, executors, dated 28 Feb 1777. Moses Bass (M) (LS), Wit: Malachi Murfee, Jeremiah Bass (x), Right Bass. A true copy taken from the original and examined by Hugh Horry, Ordinary G Town Dist. Whereas I, the within named Right Bass, am the eldest son of Edward Bass deceased, who was eldest brother of the within named Testator Moses Bass, which said Moses Bass departed this life without issue, whereby I, said Right Bass became his heir at law, and I am willing that all the several devises & bequests in the said will should have full effect, for the memory of my deceased uncle Moses Bass and for the several devisees in the within will, and five shillings, I confirm all the devises, legacies and bequests, 9 Nov 1785. Right Bass (LS), Wit: Chas Cotesworth Pinckney, Wm Smith. Proved in Charleston Dist by the oath of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 28 Jun 1786 before Dl. Mazyck, JP. Rec 28 Jun 1786. S-5, 283-284. (Holcomb, SC Deed Abstracts, 1783-1788, Bks I-5 thru Z-5, 1996. SML 975.7 Hol)


August 1788. On motion of W. Avery, Esqr. atto. for Thomas Going for obtaining letter of administration on the Estate of Elizabeth Bass, decd. ordered that the same be laid over until next term, for proof of sanguinity [kinship, blood relationship] & that a dedimus potestatem [a commission to take testimony] issue in favour of said Thomas Going to Anson & Richmond Counties & to the State of South Carolina by giving fifteen days notice to Jeremiah Bass of the time & place where such testimony will be taken, ditto for Levi Bass to South Carolina giving Thos. Going fifteen days notice at least."

Bulletin of the Watauga Association," Volume 10:



October 14, 1788. Know all men by these presents that I Edward Gowen of the County of Granville for divers good causes and considerations thereunto [me] moving more especially for the sum of £25 to me in hand paid, the receipt of which I do hereby acknowledge, hath bargained, sold & made over, and by these presents, do bargain, sell and make over to my nephew, Thomas Gowen all the estate, right and interest I have or hereafter may have to the estate of Elizabeth Bass, deceased, or any part thereof, and do hereby make over the same to the said Thomas Gowin, his heirs and assigns from the claim of me, the said Edward Gowen or any other person whatever claiming under me. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & seal the 15th day of October, 1786.
Edward Going
Witnesses:
Henry Meghe
Allin Hudson
Jhn. [X] Simmons"
John Simmons later appeared in Granville County Court to prove the deed of "Edward Gowing" to "Thomas Gowing," according to "Court Minutes of Granville County, North Carolina, 1746-1820," page 28 by Zoe Hargett Gwynn.
Granville County Will Book 2, page 79.

"Thomas Going" was mentioned in "Brunswick County, Virginia Court Order Books, 1737 & 1749." An index listed him in volume I, page 254. Other individuals who appeared in the index include : "Anne Going, Volume 1,pages 321, 353 and 379; Drury Going, Volume 1, page 302; Edward Going, Volume 3, page 388; Elsoner Going, Volume 1, page 302; John Going, Volume1, page 254; Michael Going, Volume 2, pages 37 and 78; William Going, Volume 3, page 102 and 202, William Going, Planter, Volume 3, page 204[2] and Mary Gowing, Volume 1, page 302."
See: Thomas Goins of Claiborne County, Tennessee


John Gowen appeared as the head of a household in the 1790 census of Georgetown District, Prince George Parish:
==O==
Lucy Gowen appeared as the head of a household in the 1790 census of Georgetown District, near John Gowen's location in Prince George parish. Her family was composed of five females. She may have been the widow of Jacob Gowen and the mother of his many daughters.



1804 Sumter County Deed... S.C. Marion Dist. Levi Gibson appeared, saith that he was personally acquainted with a certain elderly woman by the name of Franky Going or Taylor. That from her appearances he had cause to believe that she was not of Ethiopian extraction. She was generally reputed to have proceeded from the Indian. He was also acquainted with a certain Gowen Taylor who was said to be the son of aforesaid Franky Taylor and he never was considered in any other way than to have derived from the Indian extraction. Hardy Crawford attested to oath.

Hardy Crawford was married to Rhoda Gibson who is either dau of Jordan or Gibson --




John Gowen Sr. of SC to Solomon Page of Marion Dist.. 3 parties of land containing 250ac on Ashpole Swamp one tract 150 ac being granted to Ignatious Flowers 14 Ap 1774, one other tract 50ac granted to Archable Odom 6 June 1785--Line runs up *Ashpole Swamp to ....... the three tracts near of adj each other and include where John Gowen SR. lives. John Gowen Sr. [His mark] Wit; John Ford, Benj Rawls, proved before Robert Moody Qu 9 Jan 1808 Nancy Gowing [her mark] rdr 12 Oct 1804 before Jesse Bethea JQ .. Rec 7 June 1810



Doctor John Sizemore


John Sizemore, M. D. The community of Prestonsburg has had the services of Doctor Sizemore, a competent physician and surgeon, for the past ten years, and the name has been identified with the medical profession in this part of Eastern Kentucky for upwards of half a century.

Dr. John Sizemore was born in the Big Sandy Valley on Bull Creek two miles above its mouth February 8, 1871, son of Doctor Faries and Mourning (Clark) Sizemore. His great-grandfather was George G. Sizemore, a quarter blood Cherokee Indian who came from the Cherokee Reservation in Eastern Tennessee and spent his last years in Magoffin County. The grandfather of Doctor Sizemore was also named John and was a Union soldier in Company F of the Thirty-nmth Mounted Infantry during the Civil war. His death was the result of an accident in Magoffin County, though his home was on Beaver Creek.

Dr. Faries Sizemore was born on Turkey Creek, a tributary of the Beaver, in 1846. He was a youthful soldier in Company F of the Thirty-ninth Kentucky Mounted Infantry and with this command was in the fighting at Mount Sterling, Cynthiana and Kings Saltworks. He had a cousin, a noted rebel spy, known as Rebel Hawk, and this cousin effected the capture of Faries Sizemore, and the latter remained a prisoner of war for only a few days. Following the war Faries Sizemore studied medicine and all the rest of his life was a deep and devoted student of the science and enjoyed a very high and deserved reputation for his skill in practice. He practiced in Floyd and Carter counties, and finally retired and lived at Paintsville, where he died September 16, 1900. He was a member of the Grand Army Post, also voted as a .republican, and he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The wife of Dr. Faries Sizemore, Mourning Sizemore, is now eighty-five years of age and lives with her son John. She was born in Kentucky of an old Virginia family. There is one other child, Minnie, wife of M. H. Blivens.

Dr. John Sizemore acquired his early education in the common schools of Floyd and Carter counties, began the study of medicine in his father's office, and subsequently entered the Starling Medical College of Columbus, Ohio, and from there transferred to the Medical College of Ohio at Cincinnati. He was graduated April 9, 1896. Doctor Sizemore has been in active

practice for a quarter of a century, begmnmg his professional work at South Portsmouth, Kentucky, later at Ashland, and since 1911 at Prestonsburg. 4ie enjoys a large general practice and is a member of the various medical societies.

In 1889 he married Miss Emma Akers, daughter ot S K. Akers of Van Lear. Their only son Faries Palmer died in childhood. Doctor Sizemore is a Methodist while Mrs. Sizemore belongs to the Missionary Baptist Church. Fraternally he is affiliated with the Knights of Maccabees and the Red Men and is a republican voter.

Sunday, May 13, 2018

Molungeons of Virginia


Who Are These Molungeons of Virginia

--- The platform of Feb 1856 which expunged and ignored the 12th section and in a letter which goes expressly for restoring the Missouri Compromise. The Mulungeons of Richmond endorsed the 'late convention' at Philadelphia too; but will any southern man-- a Stuart or an Imobdin even -- endorse this letter for the restoration of the Missouri Compromise.'' 

SOURCE


From the Richmond Whig. Letter from Hon. John M. Botts
Date: March 26, 1859
Location: Maryland 
Paper: Easton Gazette 
Article type: Letters

......when the Sheriff came to count up the votes at the close of the polls, they counted but five -- and if I had received the vote of one ''Molungeon,'' and he had been authorized by the Constitution to vote, and had 'had' a majority of only one--- it would have been difficult to tell, whether I was most indebted for my election to the "Molungeon" or to the Chief Justice of the U.S.; and if my competitor had received six "Molungeon" votes, or the votes of six worthless and degraded locofocos (supposing they could be any such) they would have more than balanced these five of the first men of the State could boast...........


THE ORATORICAL OGRES AT WORK 
GOGGIN SWALLOWED WHOLE 

Date: March 28, 1859 
Location: Alabama Paper: Daily Confederation 

Thirteen congressional electors, fifty senatorial electors, and three hundred and sixty county electors have been notified to hold themselves in readiness to repel the Dragoon of Rockbridge. Botts too, will dash to the rescue at the head of a noble band of "Molungeons and Eboshins" as soon as the weather becomes sufficiently warm to render his odoriferous forces efficient.




The Slave Power; its Character, Career, and Probable Designs. By JE...

Continental monthly: devoted to... - Cornell University - Jan 1, 1863

"Whether their own children were sold may be imagined from an anecdote long current in Virginia, relative to ex-Governor Wise, who, in a certain law case where he was opposed by a Northern trader, decided of a certain slave, that the chattel, being a mulatto, was of more value than 'a molungeon.' And what, in the name of God, is a molungeon?' inquired the astonished 'Northern man." 'A mulatto' replied Wise, ' is the child of a female house-servant by 'young master' --a molungeon is the offspring of a field hand by a Yankee peddler."

Mr. Cairnes has, no doubt, not often heard of mulattoes--they constitute the great majority of Virginia slaves. But did he ever hear of a 'molungeons'?


December 1864
-- Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Battles and Sketches of the Army of Tennessee - Page 511
It soon became noised that these men were to be shot as bushwhackers General Forest informed General Rousseau, by flag of truce, that those men were his regular soldiers, and that if he shot them it would be at his peril.
The names of his soldiers were sent in, but the scout and Bose Rouss (some called him Malungeon), who had killed a Federal detective, were not mentioned in the list.

-Thursday 2d July 1863 
--Bluegrass Confederate: The Headquarters Diary of Edward O. Guerrant By Edward O. Guerrant

Came on to Mr Hortons for dinner—found him in a tornado furiosus-against Virginians, who fed his grass &c. and in ecstatic panegyrics of all Kentuckians—”all of whom were “interesting” gentlemen”—& no “malungens”. ...
(1/2 b & 1/2 w) [2 ]



From Our Own Correspondent Fredericksburg,
 January 10, 1864
"the "Government organ," however, announces that the observed of all observers were four negroes, "of genteel exteriour, and with the manners "of gentlemen, who joined in the throng that 'crowded the Executive Mansion, and were coridaly received by the President of the Untied State,'' The Molungeon Chronicle adds; -- We are not aware that anybody was hurt on the occasion, and we rejoice that we have a President who is a democrat in fact, as well as by nature."



Utica Weekly Herald [New York]
March 29, 1864
The "Richmond Whig" makes the following comments on the last call for men.
It is certain, therefore, that the "rebels" will now back down.  Twenty millions of mongrels have undertaken to whip them.  The Yankees soon got sick of the fight, and levied on the Dutch and Irish. The resident Irish and Dutch began to flag and 75,000 Paddies were recruited in Ireland, with the approval and assistance of Earl Russel.  Then 100,000 n****** were enlisted.  And now 200,000 n******, Yankees, and other molungeons, half breeds, mestizoes, and Yaboes [Yaboes—a Davis coinage for the 70,000 Yank hoboes in the armed services] are to be drafted.  What wonder that the "rebels" are completely broken hearted?  Who blames the European by-standers for advising the "rebels" to give the cause up?
For ourselves, we are free to say that we are for peace.  We want peace. We will have it.  We must have it, on any terms?  Yes, on any terms -- which General Lee, standing in Faneuil HHall, may choose to dictate to the base born wretches who have sought to enslave us.  The game is a very pretty one as it stands.  Our enemies must be conquered by us, or conquered by Lincoln. They must make terms with gentlemen or they must make terms with a blackguard and a baboon.  Take your choice, O Yankees.


Staunton Spectator
May 25, 1869
The Duties of Election Day(Column 01)
Summary: Declared that all eligible voters have the duty to vote on election day to ensure the defeat of certain sections of the Underwood constitution and to elect Walker as Governor. Wanted to ensure at least some form of control for white Virginians in the state.
Full Text of Article:The election which will take place on the 6th day of July next, by appointment of the President, will decide whether the people of this State are to be cursed with the Underwood abomination, called a Constitution, as it came from the hands of the Molungeon Convention, or whether it will be modified by having the test-oath and disfranchising clauses stricken out -- whether Walker or Wells will be our Governor, and whether proper men will be elected to represent the State in the Legislature.



HARRISONBURG  
ROCKINGHAM REGISTER & ADVERTISER
SEPT 6,1866
HARRISONBURG, VIRGINIA
Brownlow, one of the ''Loyal Southerners" now in attendance on the Molungeon Convention sitting in Philadelphia, has declared his platform as follows:  "If another war comes, I want you to divide your army into three portions.  Let the first and largest portion come armed with weapons to do the killing.  Let the second come with torches and do the burning.  Let the third come with surveyors lines, and re-mark and re-settle the country.  These are my sentiments."
----
At latest advices from Philadelphia, the following comprised the names of delegates from Virginia to the MOLUNGEON CONVENTION now in session in that city; Jno Minor Botts, Geo. Ky Gilmer, Chas. W. Butts, N.Be. Janney, John Hawkhurst, Geo. Tucker, and S. D. Kerns.  Gov. Boreman of W. Va.., is also present.  Dr. Gilmer, of this place, is the only delegate from the Valley.

--
HARRISONBURG  
ROCKINGHAM REGISTER & ADVERTISER
SEPT 13,  1866
HARRISONBURG, VIRGINIA
A specimen of dignity, decency and ability of the MOLUNGEON CONVENTION, recently held in Philadelphia is thus related: Jack Hamilton, ex-Gov. of Texas, claimed attention while he read an estract from a speech delivered by Secretary Seward somewhere in Michigan.  o action was taken on it, although an excited delegate moved that Seward be sent three hundred and sixty-five degrees into rebel hell, with Montgomery Blair piled on him, for the words were not worth three cents a bushel.

Previous to the adoption of the address of Senator Creswell, of Maryland, by the MOLUNGEON CONVENTION, Parson Brownlow, in tones almost as tremolous as his fingers, spoke in favor of its adoption, and proposed the printing of ten thousand copies in large type, big enough for Andy Johnson to read "drunk or sober."

"Mulungeons and Eboshins": Ethnic and Political Epithets
by Wayne Winkler

Thursday, April 26, 2018

Chippoakes Creek Families

Chippoakes Creek Families






The red dot is Upper Chippoakes Creek.  Note the the Quiyoughcohannocks on one side of the James and the  Paspahegh on the other side.  The first Gibsons lived on or very near to the Quiyoughcohannocks and were buried on the lands that belonged to the Paspahegh Tribe.


The records below will show that George Gibson, Thomas Gibson, Thomas Chivers/Chavis, 'Peter' Gibson, Thomas Busby, John Collins, Robert Sweat and Adam and Gilbert Ivey are all found on Chippoakes Creek. Thomas Busby was Indian Interpreter for the Crown [In 1712 “Gilbert Ivy and Adam Ivy being brought before this Board and examined on Suspition of trading with the Tuscaruro Indians contrary to the orders and proclamation prohibiting that Trade,” [sons of Adam and Elizabeth Ivey] and at least one Ivey has DNA results that match the Busby. The Busby, Gibson, Collins, Caufields and Ivey were neighbors on Chippoakes Creek. 


Indians on the Upper Chippokes Creek:

William Knott, 312 Acres, Surry Co 28 Mar 1666, p. 482 (land patents). 112 acres on south side of James River on south side of Upper Chipoake Creek, bounded NW on land of Edward Oliver, N upon Wm. Thomas, E on George Gibson [See Indian Jane Gibson of Charles City County]  SE on Mr. Fisher; 200 acres on south side of said River, Wly. on Jeremiah Clements, NW on Edward Oliver, Nly on Wm. Thomas, George Gibson & Edward Minter, Ely. on Wm. Gapins land & Mr. Thomas Busbie and SE on Mr. Richard Hill

The Quiyoughcohannock were one of the first Virginia Indian groups the English encountered in 1607 after landing at Jamestown. Situated primarily in present-day Surry County, the Quiyoughcohannocks had four villages in the region likely east of Upper Chippokes Creek. The Quiyoughcohannocks in 1608/09 escorted Nathaniel Powell and Anas Todkill southward in an unsuccessful attempt to locate survivors of the Roanoke Colony. The English observed a part of a ritual initiation into manhood, the huskanaw, at a Quiyoughcohannock village in 1608.

Claremont Manor is in Surry County, Virginia, on the south shore of James River at its confluence with Upper Chippokes Creek. It was in the area occupied by the Quiyoughcohannock Indians when George Harrison received a grant of land there is 1621. 

Southwark Parish was created in 1647 and described as encompassing all the territory extending from "the colledge" [College Creek] to (and including) the Upper Chipoaks [Upper Chippokes Creek]

A List of ye Tythables from ye Colledge to Smiths forte taken ye 10th of June 1668 by Mr. Thos. Warren:
Tho. Hurle   Joh. Shipp  Tho Gibson & 1 negro, 04
Edmond Howel l 01

Elizabeth Chavis on 28 March 1672 made a successful petition to the General Court of Virginia to release her son, Gibson Gibson, who had been unlawfully bound by Berr. Mercer to Thomas Barber who had gone to England leaving the boy with Samuel Austin [McIlwaine, Minutes of the Council, 302-3].  While it has been published to somehow show the Gibson and Chavis must have been of African descent by Paul Heinegg I suspect Mr., Heinegg was not aware of this law on the book, or chose to ignore it.  

In 1655 provision was made that Indian children could become indentured servants only by consent of their parents and for specified terms agreed upon and such children were to be educated in the Christian religion.
In Virginia, 1656, it was provided that Indian children brought into the colony as hostages should be assigned to masters by choice of their parents, but should not be made slaves. Again, in 1658, it was decreed that any Indian children disposed of by their parents to a white man for “education and instruction in the Christian religion”, or for any other purpose, were not to be turned over to any other person upon any pretext whatever
It certainly appears that Gibson Gibson would fall under this law when he was turned over to Samuel Austin, the recent find of "Indian Jane Gibson" court documents show the Gibson in Charles City County were known as Indians as early as 1640.

1676 List of the Names and some of the Residences of the Rebel Participants in Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 in Colonial Virginia [Bacon's Castle - home of Arthur Allen - Claremont] 

Edmund Howell - Surry - Southwark Parish
Thomas Gibson - Surry - Southwark Parish 

Edmund Howell -- 23 Dec. 1679 
To my only son, William Howell my whole estate with some exceptions. to my godson Gibson, son of Thomas Gibson To godson Henry Baker. Makes George Foster Exec. and gives him the care of son until he is 21 years old, If son die, his inheritance to Henry Baker, GeorgeFoster Thomas Ironmonger his children.
Wit: Thos Pittan, Sr., John Moring. Prob. 9 Oct. 1679.(2:240) 

Gibby Gibson 
In the Sandy Point Cemetery, Charles City County; (Home of the Paspahegh Indians) - (See map above)


Here Lyes the Body of FRANCIS GIBSON

Here Lyes the Body of GIBBY GIBSON
Here Lyes the Body of THOMAS GIBSON


Will of Gibby Gibson of Charles City Co. , "very weak'
.

My riding horse to be sold to pay Col. Lightfoot.
To Hannah Dennam, my negro boy Jack, for life, and then to my son Gibby Gibson.

To wife Francis: my negro girl Vicky, for life, and then to my daughter Fran: Smith ( Francis would later marry and move from Bertie County with second husband William Chavis and is found on the lands of William Eaton - Saponi? in 1754)

To my son in law George Smith, 2 negroes - Sovilaty and Jin.

To Hannah Dennam, my negro boy Peter for life and then to my daughter Fran Smith

To my son Edward Gibson, my negro Judey, my wearing clothes, carpenters tools, and coopers tools

To George Smith, 2 sheets, 2 blankets and a rugg

To Tabitha Rollinson, negro girl Nanny. [ Also moved to the lands of William Eaton from Bertie County]

George Smith to take care of my cattle and they are to be divided equally between my wife and granddaughter Sarah Smith.

To wife my two working Horses and hoggs.

Rest of my estate to George Smith and he to be executor , Dated 2 March 1726/7
Witt: Benja. Moody, Robert Cade,(*) James Blankes
Signed: Gibby(G) Gibson
Codicil: Negro boy Peter given in will to Hannah Dennam and then to Frances Smith, is to go to my son George Gibson
3 March 1726/27 Wit: by above Moody and Cade
Recorded 3 May 1727 Presented by George Smith and proved by above Blanks and Cade. Col. Fran's Lightfoot, Security.

After Gibby died some of the family started leaving Virginia. Frances who had married George Smith and later William Chavis, Tabitha who married George Rollinson, John Gibson and Gideon Gibson are in Bertie County, Hubbard Gibson and his family also moved to Bertie County before they all seemed to have moved on. Some in Granville and Orange Co., N.C and others to the Pee Dee.  
November 1741 the court presented George Gibson and George Gibson, Jr., for not going to church. In July 1745 Phillis Goeing (Gowen) petitioned him concerning her children, but he failed to answer the petition so the court ordered the churchwardens to bind them out. (It is likely this George Gibson Sr., is the son of Gibby Gibson who left the 1727 will in Charles City County. 


(*) Robert Cade was the witness on will of Gibby Gibson 1727 in Charles City County, Virginia. This is likely Robert Cade who married Susannah Crump, son Stephen Crump Cade born September 17, 1715 St Peters Parish, New Kent County, Virginia. Stephen Crump Cade resided in lived in Edgecombe, Dobbs, and was Sheriff of Johnston Co. in 1757, married to Mary Wadill and Mary Gibson and died in Robeson Co., North Carolina in 1783. His son John Cade married to Elizabeth Adair, daughter of the Indian trader and author Doctor James Adair of Robeson County, North Carolina. Elizabeth's sister, Agnes married to John Gibson who is said to have been killed by Indians near Nashville in 1790.

15 Sep 1769 James IVEY of Bladen Co to James Adair, doctor, 200 acres in the fork of the Little Pedee River, on the east side of Mitchells Creek being land granted to Jordan Gibson on 1 July 1758, conveyed to John Wootan on 25 September 1761 then to Ben Davis on 16 July 1762 then to James Ivey on 26 July 1766. (See Ivey below)

The Gibsons of Louisa County, later called Melungeons, and the Gibsons of Pee Dee share a common ancestor proven by DNA match.


CHAVIS 



Thomas Chivers was appointed to a jury of twelve men in Isle of Wight County on 28 July 1658 to determine whether 900 acres belonged to Major Nicholas Hill or to John Snollock [VMHB V:406]. He purchased 1,100 acres of land at the head of Sunken Marsh near Chipoakes Creek in Surry County, Virginia, on 20 May 1659 for two cows, payment of 4,000 pounds of tobacco in October that year, and payment of 4,000 pounds of tobacco in October 1660. He died sometime before 13 April 1664 when his daughter Elizabeth was bound out until she came of age [DW 1:151; Haun, Surry County Court Records, I:149; II:232]. 


Thomas CheversChavis purchased 1,100 acres of land at the head of Sunken Marsh near Chippoakes in Surry Co. Virginia - 1659  These Chavis descendants also went to Bertie Co., NC and then to Granville where they were apparently one of the 15 Saponi Indians living on William Eaton's land.

CHEVERS/SHIVERS FAMILY - CHRONICLES AND CONNECTIONS - By Thom Montgomery, PhD


IVEY


Adam Ivey was a small-scale tenant farmer, almost certainly growing tobacco. Fifty acres was a small landholding, but a single field worker was capable of managing only three or four acres of tobacco in those days. Fifty acres was a typical holding for a planter with only himself to work the fields.[5] His location can be approximated, since nearly all the persons mentioned in these records lived south of the James River in the neck of land bounded by Upper Chippoakes Creek and Wards Creek. This neck included what was later the parish of Martins Brandon, in which Adam Ivey apparently lived at his death, in what would later become Prince George County. It was quite close to Surry County, Upper Chippoakes Creek being the later boundary between Prince George and Surry.

History of the Adam Ivey Family



The DNA evidence shows that the Ivys, Iveys and Ivies are related to the Busbices/Busbys/Buzbees in the male line. The Ivy male line's "Busby" DNA could have resulted from an Ivy adoption of a male Buzbee, or a Busby male could have been the father of a male Ivy. Ivey and Busby




“After seeing the latest Y-DNA results, it appears that it's highly probable that the Benjamin Busby line and one of the Ivey/Ivie/Ivy lines are entangled, most likely in very early Colonial Virginia. One of the Busby/Busbice/Buzbee male descendants is matching 66/67 markers with what we believe to be the Adam Ivie line of Charles City/Prince George Co, VA" - Jerry Ivey - Here



Thomas Busby (born about 1674) was an “Indyan boy” servant to Mr. Robert Caufield of Surry Co. VA in July of 1684 when his age was adjudged at 10 years (Haun, Surry County Records 1682-91, 444) - This Thomas Busby is likely named after Thomas Busby the interpreter for the crown mentioned in records of George Gibson in 1666. Could this Thomas Busby "Indyan boy" be the Ivey DNA match?


Surry County - 5 Mar 1688/89 Book 4 p108 Robert Caufield 680a where I lately lived and known as Sunken Marsh. ( Thomas Chavis land was also on Sunken Marsh -see above)

1684 Upper Sunken Marsh
p.46, Mr. Tho: Busby, Peter Gibson, Con & Ann two Indyans - 4



Will of Capt. Robert Caufield, of Lawne's Creek parish, Surry county: Names niece Elizabeth, wife of William Holt, niece Mary, wife of James Bruton, nephew John Seward; legacy to Mary, dau. of Charles Williams; to Mrs. Mary Holt 15L Page 311. sterl.; legacies to Frances, dau. of Francis Mason, Elizabeth, dau. of Arthur Allen, to Katherine and James, children of Arthur Allen, (Arthur Allen was owner of Bacon's Castle) to Mrs. Elizabeth Holt, Wm. Hancocke and his wife, to Samuel Newton and John Collins, wife Elizabeth. Dated Jan. 2, 1691; proved Jan. 19, 1691. [Capt. Robert Caufield was son of William Caufield, of the parish of Chippoakes, Surry county, and Doreas, his wife.




22 Jul 1743 Jno. Collins enters 200 acres in Craven County on south side of Contentnea Creek bordering Thomas Ivi’s line and runs up the creek… [North Carolina Land Entries 1735-1752, A. B. Pruitt, p44]


This may refer to the land granted to Thomas Ivey the following year. Thus, this may be the first sighting of the Thomas Ivey who was in Bladen County later this year. The name on the warrant at the Archives is very difficult to read and may be “Ive” or “Ivi” or “Ives” or something else entirely.




1 Dec 1744 Grant: Thomas Ivey, 300 acres in Craven County on the south side Great Contentnea Creek on the Mirey branch. [Colony of NC 1735-1764 Abstracts of Land Patents, Margaret M. Hofman, Vol. 1, p11, Grant #2721]



23 Oct 1754 Granville Grant: Adam Ivey, 285 acres in Edgecombe County on Contentnea Creek joining Ivey’s Meadow and John Haywood. Survey for Adam Ivey dated 4 September 1753, chain carriers: Joshua Lee, Peter Bass. [Patent Book 11, p211]


This is actually on Little Contentnea Creek. “Ivey’s Meadow” clearly implies that he already owned adjoining land.






SWEAT


Leift. Robert Sheppard due 650 acres of land in James City Co., 26 July 1638, for transporting 13 persons ... the list includes Robert Swett. The land granted to Robert Sheppard at this time was on the south bank of the James River at Chippokes Creek. [Nugent, p. 584] [Nugen t, Nell Marion, "Cavaliers & Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Land Paten ts and Grants 1623-1666" (1934, Genealogical Publishing Company reprint 19 69), p. 94] . 


17 October 1640: James City Court: "Whereas Robert Sweat hath begotten with child a negro woman servant (not slave) belonging unto Lieutenant Sheppard, the court hath therefore ordered that the said negro woman shall be whipt at the whipping post and the said Sweat shall tomorrow in the forenoon do public penance for his offence at James City church in the time of divine service according to the laws of England in that case provided." [Virginia Council and General Court Records 1640-1641, in "Virginia Magazine of History" Vol. II, p. 281] This was a general law against fornication that applied to all members of the colony. 



CHIPPOAKES CREEK TO BLADEN COUNTY


1754 Governor Dobbs requested reports from the militia commanders of North Carolina’s counties. The Bladen militia submitted the following: “Col. Rutherford’s Regimt. of Foot in Bladen County 441, a Troop of horse 36... Drowning Creek on the Head of Little Peedee, 50 families, a mixt Crew, a lawless People, filleth the Lands without patent or paying quit rents. Shot a surveyor for coming to view vacant lands being inclosed in great swamps. Quakers to attend musters or pay as in the Northern Counties. Fines not high enough to oblige the militia to attend musters. No arms stores or Indians in the county.” [Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. V, p161 


A number of ethnologists, archeologists, historians, etc., have identified these 50 mixt families living on Drowning Creek as the ancestors of the Lumbee Indians. So who was living in Bladen County in 1754? The records show that these families who would later be called Lumbee, Melungeons, etc., were, in fact, living on Drowning Creek - Pee Dee River area in 1754. 


27 August 1753, John Johnson Jr. entered 100 acres in Bladen County, North Carolina on the north side of Pugh's marsh whereon John Oxendine was then living. (Bladen County Land Entries #805). In 1759 , he and two of his sons, John and Benjamin, lived in the Drowning Creek area of Bladen County, North Carolina which is the upper part of the Lumbee River area. The Oxendine, Ivey and Linegar are found on Newman's Ridge. 


Moses Bass was living near "the drains of Drowning Creek" on 1 February 1754 when Robert Carver entered 100 acres there [Philbeck, Bladen County Land Entries, nos. 677, 934] 


Thomas Ivey 300 acres on Drowning Creek where James Roberts formerly lived on 26 September 1755 [Philbeck, Bladen County Land Entries, nos. 974, 1048].


Robert Sweat was granted 100 acres on Wilkerson Swamp near the Little Pee Dee River on 23 Dec 1754. This land adjoined the land of Joshua Perkins and was sold toPhillip Chavis. 


Gilbert Sweat Case…21 Aug. 1829…St. Landry’s Parish LA… Testimony of Joshua Perkins – Gilbert Sweat was born about 1756 in what was then Marion Co. SC on the Pee Dee River. About the year 1777, Perkins helped Sweat run away with Frances Smith, the wife of J.B. Taylor. Sweat moved from SC to Tenn, to NC to Big Black River, Miss. And arrived in LA in 1804. 


31 Mar 1753 Grant: To Daniel Willis, 300 acres in Bladen County on Saddletree Swamp adjacent Thomas Ivey [Colony of NC 1735-1764 Abstracts of Land Patents, Margaret M. Hofman, Vol. 1, p10, grant #111]


17 November 1753 Bladen County land which had been surveyed for Gideon Gibsonin North Carolina on the north side of the Little Pee Dee River was mentioned in a Bladen County land entry [Philbeck, Land Entries: Bladen County, no. 904]. 


20 Feb 1754 Land Entry: Thomas Ivey enters 150 acres including his own improvements, on the 5 Mile Branch in Bladen County. [North Carolina Land Entries 1753-1756, A. B. Pruitt, Vol. 2, p127] (From BOB'S FILING CABINET) 


Fayetteville, North Carolina --- Dec. 2, 1845 -- Extreme Old Age -- A writer in the Highland Messenger says he had just visited Spencer Bolton, a resident of Buncombe county, who is now almost one hundred and ten years of age! He was born (1735) on Big Pee Dee River, in South Carolina, and is still sound in mind and body. He was in several skirmishes under Marion in the Rebolutionary war. Has been for 65 years a member of the Methodist Church. Health generally good. In early life, principal diet bread, rice, potatoes, and milk; slept on straw beds; generally up before day-light; and much accustomed to bathe in cold water. To the influence of these habits he ascribes his long life. Spencer Bolton is father of Solomon Bolton who was identified as a Portuguese/Melungeon in 1874 court case.


These are the families first found on Chippoakes Creek, as they spread out into the Carolinas, Kentucky, Tennessee etc.