Eastern Cherokee

Eastern Cherokee
~Sherie Corbett 2014~

Friday, November 21, 2014

Saturday, November 15, 2014

I Interrupt this Blog to Bring You This Important Message

Associations

This is in response to the personal attack made by Donald Collins on his blog.  It may take several blogs to get to the bottom of the venom and personal attacks spewing into the blogs of Jack Goins and Don Collins and being spread by Janet Crain, but once I put it all out there, I will be done with them and will say no more. (Unless they publish another paper like the last.)


I will explain the situation between Jack Goins, Penny Ferguson, and Janet Crain eventually but first I must deal with Collins. 


Anyone who has been following the Melungeon discussions on Yahoo, Rootsweb, Genforum, etc., for the last 10 or so years will probably recognize this as just another of Collins' many personal attacks over the years. My advice to you is do not associate with Donald Collins..... I learned the hard way. 


One of his favorite people to attack was Brent Kennedy and indirectly the Melungeon Historical Society. On many occasions I myself had attacked Brent Kennedy's work, Kennedy always responded with a friendly reply, no matter how tough the questions were and some of them were just plain mean.  One poster in particular, going by the name 'Frank' and 'Jon', at different times was particularly cruel.[more about that later]


Don Collins was on several of the discussion lists that I was on and I may have replied to some of his messages or he may have replied to mine, we discussed genealogy and that was as far as it went.  


His attacks on Brent Kennedy were rather brutal, personal attacks, also on the MHA, it reached a level that I finally had to unsub him from my Yahoo group. Things quieted down .... for awhile. Very few people know of the situation I am going to present next, I have not spoke of this publicly but I think it needs to be said to put things in perspective.


In the summer of 2010 I received legal papers from the family of Brent Kennedy that a lawsuit had been initiated -- against myself, Donald Collins, and Jan Lala. This lawsuit cost me hundreds of dollars to defend and took up most of my time until April of 2011 when it was finally resolved.



Sent: Thu, Feb 24, 2011 1:35 pm
Subject: Kennedy
Dear Joanne:

I have just heard again from Richie Kennedy.  I have talked with him and Ron Elkins, the Wise County Commonwealth Attorney, regarding the controversies which have been raised, primarily dealing with the posts made by Collins and "Jan Lala."

I believe that I have been successful in convincing them that you have no affection for Collins and are innocent of any wrongdoing, if wrongdoing did occur.

Ron Elkins still is interested in investigating Collins.  He has expressed an interest in interviewing you, but because of the difficulty involved with that for all parties, he has,in lieu of an interview, provided me with a list of nine questions he would like for you to answer.  I have pasted the questions below. 
The questions are:
1. Advise of your association with and everything you know about Donald "Don" Collins, present address, telephone numbers; emails, age; history; etc...
2. Donald "Don Collins posted an online poem attributed to "anonymous" that utilized numerous references to Brent Kennedy; "bin Laden"; "terrorists"; "Talibans";  etc... Advise of any knowledge you have regarding this post and Donald "Don" Collins' involvement with this post, and his intent if known.
3. Donald "Don" Collins claims to "have had 2 different meeting with the FBI concerning this matter." Advise as to any knowledge you have of Mr. Collins' claim which has not been substantiated by Federal authorities.
4. Donald "Don" Collins posted online that "all the world know [sic] Turks is thieves, rapers, uncivilized barbarians, primitive and perverts" Advise as to any knowledge you have of his accusations of criminal and immoral conduct by others contained in this post, and his intent if known.
5. Donald "Don" Don Collins posted reference to Attorney Richard Kennedy (who resides and practices in my jurisdiction and further made references to "the devil, a lawyer's wife's soul; children's souls; and that "their children's souls rot in hell for eternity." Advise as to any knowledge you have of this post by Donald "Don" Collins and his intent if known.
6.Do you know the true identity of the alias ''Jan Lala" who posted frequently with you and Donald "Don" Collins? If so, please provide as much information as possible regarding this individual.


-------------------------------------------------       


Sent: Monday, April 04, 2011 2:45 PM
Subject: RE: Joanne Pezzullo
Thank you - you have done an excellent job for your client in sorting out all the facts. It appears that Jan lala is a ghost and that Don Collins was a risk and problem for everyone, including Joanne herself. We all realize now how one reckless person can implicate all others without their knowledge in these unmonitored Internet postings.  I'm sure Ron Elkins will appreciate the information on Don Collins (who was the only one perceived as a threat or an interest to law enforcement).  I will request the civil attorneys to enter a non-suit dismissing all civil actions for issuance of subpoenas, etc and I consider the matter closed. 


In December 2010 after emails and phone calls went unanswered [thought maybe he could help out with legal fees] I finally contacted his 'cousin' who I will not name [at this point] and received the following response;


To: joannepezzullo
Sent: Mon, Dec 20, 2010 9:24 pm
Subject: Re: LOL
Don didn't answer you because he was in the hospital and said he had over 2000 emails when he got home.  I had searched all over for him, even in Obits, and nobody knew what had happened, since he really has no family out there.   He dropped off the old M list and I told him what you posted today.   He is going to write a "letter" and get me to post it in his name on the list.  
I guess when I do, Janet will throw me off, but so be it.  He is going to "publicly ridicule" Roberta.  She got him to do an Autosomal DNA test, and promised to "read" him his results.  He paid a lot for it too.  He never heard back and now sees that she has used his results in her "award winning" paper. 
That email was followed by this one from Don Collins in February 2011
-----Original Message-----
From: Don Collins
To: joannepezzullo
Sent: Mon, Feb 7, 2011 11:13 am
Subject: Re: Papers
Hello Joanne,

Again, DNA without the paper trail is useless, it definitely is NOT the final word. I grew up hearing my Father and all my Uncles saying our Collins' was 'onst' Indians. This is what has been passed on.
Why on Earth would they say this, if not the truth ?
As far as Roberta goes, she took me for a ride on an autosomal DNA test. She was less than honest with this situation.

Interesting?  Take note of the dates December 2010 and February 2011.


Fast forward to May 2012 after the paper was published by Estes, Crain, Goins and Ferguson.  


I posted to the Melungeon List at Rootsweb regarding the 'speculation' posted six times in the above report that 'Vardy and Valentine were said to be brothers' when all four authors were well aware they didn't even have the same haplogroup. I was curious why they had posted this six times but never mentioned comparing Donald Collins autosomal results [Roberta obviously had them] to one of Vardy Collins so I wrote to the list;


"Seems like someone would have picked up the tab on your Family Finder test just to see if you match Vardy Collins and Henry Bunch family..... put an end to the speculation. Joanne
To which Don Collins responded;
-----Original Message----- From: Don Collins
To: melungeon-dna
Sent: Wed, May 30, 2012 6:19 pm Subject: Re: [MELUNGEON-DNA] Melungeons, A Multiethnic Population

          Joanne,
You said:
"Seems like someone would have picked up the tab on your Family Finder test just to see if you match Vardy Collins and Henry Bunch family..... put an end to the speculation." 
Done, an anonymous Bunch cousin stepped to the line and put their 'Dinero where there mouth is' I was notified by ftDNA that the order has been placed.
I will be sure and post any interesting findings when I get the results from ftDNA Don Collins

How very interesting --- Roberta Estes had Don Collins autosomal results as early as December of 2010 -- but never used them in their report to show 'Vardy and Valentine WERE brothers' instead of speculating?  In May of 2012 after "he had paid her a lot" she had still never given him his autosomal results?  Why would he have to have a second test in 2012?  Maybe he will tell us in his next blog.

The next part of this blog is going to go back to 2005 when the Core Melungeon Project first started, and contrary to what has been written I will show I was there when it started and continued doing the genealogy for the project until I quit and Kathy James took over.  


I feel kind of sorry for the people who I have to drag into this just because they 'associated with Don Collins' but I simply could not let this personal attack go unchallenged. 


Donald Collins wrote; "This woman Joanne Pezzullo, self identifies as the diva of Melungin research , when in reality she is the diva of a small band of cretinites, heaterns, and sodomites that help push her Afro-phobic agenda." 


After Janet Crain posted this to Face Book pages I asked her to have him remove this, I really did not want to spend my time rehashing this, I am so sorry they didn't. 


I would much rather be posting the information on the Brass Ankles and their DNA connections to the Melungeon Gibsons.  Instead I will cover "Afro-phobic vs Indian-Phobic agendas."





Friday, November 7, 2014

Portuguese DNA


Iberian DNA

"Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans later colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and particularly the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have argued the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish, Welsh and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b (of Paleolithic origin) is the most common haplogroup in practically all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe.[10] Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). This haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons generally 60% in the South summing 83% northwards, and in some regions 90%"  [11]



What is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH)?

Some haploytpes can be seen more frequently in certain parts of the world. For example, people whose ancestors are from the western coast of Europe often share in common a small group of Y-Chromosome STR markers. The group of Y-Chromosome markers which are frequently found in western Europe is called the Atlantic Modal Haploytpe (AMH). The AMH is characterized by the following markers:
DYS19 =  14
DYS388 = 12
DYS390 = 24
DYS391 = 11
DYS392 = 13
DYS393 = 13



Below is a comparison to this AMH of one Gibson known as the 
"Head" of the Melungeons
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DYS393
DYS390
DYS19
DYS391
DYS385
DYS426
DYS388
DYS439
DYS389i
DYS392
D

DYS DYS  DYS  DYS                     DYS                  DYS
393   390     19     391                       388                    392
1324141111-1412121313
Everyone of the AMH markers are ticked off.  So in Portugal we have this 'AMH' that shows -- 60% in the South - 83% northwards, and in some regions 90%" and we have the 'Head' of the Gibson Melungeons with this same exact AMH

In an article written by Roberta Estes she writes that the single most Haplogroup found among the tribal Cherokees tested is the European Haplogroup R1b. How this is possible she explains is; 
"There is some level of R1b admixture in the Native Population that preceded contact with Europeans that we have not yet identified."
[Pre-Contact such as the Spanish-Portuguese explorers deAyllon - de Soto and Pardo] 

Now does this prove anything?  Not really, but it does prove you can find anything on this big, vast Internet to prop up your theory.  You have to admit this is a pretty fascinating fact though. This makes as much sense as a DNA Project that claims the Melungeons were African because 'some' of them have a Sub Saharan Haplogroup that reaches back thousands of years.

They are basing this claim on ONE ancestor out of maybe a thousand, they had one ancestor that was Sub Saharan the other  500 or so could have been Portuguese, they have no way of knowing who the other hundreds of ancestors were. Most of the Melungeons, including the "Head and Source" - Vardy Collins and Buck Gibson - had European DNA and they have no idea who their parents were.  

And lastly we cannot eliminate Portuguese ancestry because Portuguese music doesn't sound like Loretta Lynn or Patsy Cline.  They also don't sound like Louis Armstrong or Count Basie - and we can't rule out English because Patsy and Loretta don't sound like the BEATLES..... and I haven't heard too many Irish jigs that sound like them either.

Fact is their music is unique, just as is their heritage, their legends, their stories, their color. 

Monday, November 3, 2014

The Redbones

 THE REDBONES

'In 1856, voting by the free black people (present day Red Bones) of Ten Mile Creek Precinct in what is now Allen Parish, Louisiana, became a source of public concern. Several were tried for illegal voting, for free Negroes did not have the franchise, but they were acquitted when their colored ancestry could not be proven and the judge would not permit the jury to evaluate them by their appearance.'' Arkansas Toothpick






RED BONE, Talbot County. (Georgia)
This early community
was located at the site of the present YPSILANTI
(q.v.). The name is taken from an old Indian
chief, Red Bone, who was born here.


HORNELLSVILLE WEEKLY TRIBUNE
[New York]     11/28/1890

SOUTH CAROLINA’S REDBONES

There are a singular race of people in South Carolina called the Redbones. Their origin is unknown. They resemble in appearance the gypsies, but in complexion they are red. They have accumulated considerable property and are industrious and peaceable. They live in small settlements at the foot of the mountains and associated with none but their own race. They are a proud and high spirited people. Caste is very strong among them. They enjoy life, visit the watering places and mountain resorts, but eat by themselves and keep by themselves. When the war broke out several of them enlisted in the Hampton legion, and when the legion reached Virginia there was a great outcry among the Virginians and the troops from other states because we had enlisted Negroes. They did not resemble the African in the least, except in cases where Africans had amalgamated with Indians. This intermixture, which is common in the Carolinas, produces marvelous results. It takes the kink out of the hair of the African, straightens his features and improve him in every way except in temper---Interview with Senator Hampton.






BEDFORD GAZETTE

1/16/1903
South Carolina’s "Red Bones."

Have you ever heard of a class of people called "red bones?" said Lewis Marshall, of Charlston, S. C. "They are the most peculiar people in the United States. No one living absolutely knows the race from which they sprang or whence the original settlers came. They live very nearly on the boundary line between South Carolina and Georgia, in the northwestern part of
the first-names State. They are very clannish, mix very little with people not of their race, and in a manner are quite thrifty. I am of the opinion that they are descendants of the Basques of Southern France. They do not lack courage, for a company of them served in Hampton’s legion during the late Civil War, and bore themselves bravely at the first Manassas. Their skin is of a swarthy red, resembling that of the Indian, but at that point all resemblance ceases, except to be that they are very hot of temper. I have often wondered why the ethnologists of this country have not studied these people. Surely a monograph on them would be highly interesting."



The Goins mentioned in this article as Redbones are the same Goins who are part of the Lumbee Tribe -- who are included in the Melungeon Core DNA group.  The Chavis family mentioned are the same Chavis family associated with the Melungeon Gibsons in the 1600s in Charles City County. 




Bennettsville May 17, 1893
Mr. McDonald Furman

My Dear Sir

Yours of 13th inst is before me and in reply let me say
that I not only appreciate your laudable desire to rescue the traditions of
an obscure race, sometimes wronged, from oblivion, but to call the public
mind to a number of important facts of our brief history, both secular and
religious, which in the eager haste of this fast age, our people are liable
to forget. Your brief, but important, communication to the public press
calling attention to things of this sort have always interested one reader
at least. You will permit me to thank you very sincerely, that you, young
man, as you are, have respect to the days, and the men of "auld lang syne"
and can find interest and worth, if not beauty and charms amid the bygone
years. And I trust that if the response of your contemporaries is not
always as generous as your fond wishes may desire, that still your inquiries
may bring to light facts and principles, that shall gratify and profit your
own mind, and help your generation, and those who shall come after.

The question now upon your mind, of which you write me
is not unworthy your research. And I wish that I were able to give you more
information than I can. Of course the people of "mixed breed," that we
have among us in Marlborough are not known as "Redbones," and not until
recently have they been called "Croatans," a name which some of them are now
adopting. For generations, they have claimed to have been of "Portuguese"
extraction, while commonly the white people have thought them mulattos.
Since the "Revolutionary War" the Quicks and a few other names connected
with them, have enjoyed the respect of white people; and all the privileges
of citizenship were accorded them in consideration of "distinguished
services," they rendered to the cause of independence. And the consequence
has been that their complexion, their circumstances and general character
has wonderfully improved, until now they are scarcely recognized as having
"mixed blood" in their veins. You can see how on account of the special
favor shown this family, other men of "mixed breed" would naturally claim
and seek alliances with them: and so it came to pass in the years "before
the war between the states," that questions would sometimes arise as to the
citizenship of parties making the claim as only free whites were so
accounted and many a long controversy arose in the courts over such "points
in law." Judge Hudsen, was attorney in a case of this sort, and made a very
thorough investigation of the question of descent and has told me more than
once that he was satisfied that "several of the larger families of this
color, were free from Negro blood." He says that "they have a well
authenticated claim that they sprang from a parentage that came from the
south of Europe, Spain or Portugal, and that with this European blood was
probably some Moorish, but no evidence of Negro." Other families claim
affinity with the American Indian and there can be little doubt but that
their claim is just, as they have the natural characteristic marks of that
aboriginal people clearly developed. While everybody believes, that some
who claim to be Indian, or Moor, are unquestionably mixed with Negro.

You ask me if we have "any Chavis" in Marlborough?
They are here, and have been for two or three generations, and are among the
best known people we have after the Quicks. And it is very likely that they
have intermarried. Why, Sir, if you were here to accompany me to one of my
appointments next Sunday, and take a seat in the "a.... corner," [might be
Arian!] just about the hour for the service to commence, looking through the
window blinds, you might see a "covered buggy with two horses (or mules)
drive up, and presently a young man about "six foot three" would enter the
door, lift his beaver, and with slow and courtly tread walk down the aisle,
"straight as an arrow, raven locks, prominent raised cheeks, complexion
brownish red," and take a seat about mid way the house, and if you were not
looking for "Redbones," you might ask, "what fine looking well behaved young
man is that," well that is "Lewis Chavis." He has a valuable farm, a "good
bank account," his mother owns a fine place, and valuable mortgages, and he
has a younger brother just as good looking, only not quite so tall. And has
some cousins that are enterprising valuable citizens. But there are others
of the name, not so well to do, and not so well received in social circles.
These better ones however when they open their lips, betray their origins as
they tell you of the "housens"and "chillens," etc.

And then we have a large family of Locklears, another
of Jacob Turners (?), in making a society and class of their own, who do not
seem to aspire to anything higher. Poor pitiable creatures, they scorn (?)
to associate with Negroes, cannot with the better class of whites, and yet
many of them are good people, industrious, honest, humble citizens. Of
course you will find vicious, envious, worthless fellows among them, but no
more than many a "pale face" or "black skin." They have two Baptist
churches in Marlborough, one of them located near the little town of Clio,
where they have a large congregation, and well behaved. And the existence
of the church, and a comfortable framed building to worship in, makes them a
fixture in the community, and an advantage in the way of farm laborers. The
other is in the upper part of the county and is not doing so well, I judge
mainly for lack of a sensible pastor. The young man who does most of their
preaching, being a noisy, ignorant sort of fellow, and yet sharp enough to
keep his place among them. This latter church is known, in doctrine and
practice, as badly mixed as the blood of its members. Feet washing, free
will, immersionists. And yet the leading people of the community, who are
mostly Methodists, enjoy having the church among them because it moralizes
and improves the character, as well as settles and fixes laborers on their
farms.

Now I have filled up my space, and fear that with it
all I have not met your wishes, as I certainly desired to do. If however
from what I have written you shall suppose that I may yet help you in the
way of information you will not hesitate to command me. With the kindest
regards to your excellent father and profound veneration for your honored
name through three generations, I am yours with great respect

J.A.W. Thomas




Saturday, October 18, 2014

Melungeons Redbones Croatans And Related Groups-Part One

This is the first part of a Series on the Melungeons and those groups known to be related to them, sometimes called 'Little Races.'

If you take the male Y DNA test or the female mtDNA test you can trace back thousands of years to where your ancestor originated.  This is ONE ancestor that lived thousands of years ago. In 10 generations we have some 1024 grandparents - in the grand scheme of things that one ancestor thousands of years ago is pretty insignificant in the search for your heritage. 

In a Council for Responsible Genetics article 'The Color of Our Genes' they write; "......in examining less than 1 percent of a person's genetic background, these companies often overstate their tests' ability to say anything significant about a person's heritage, giving the impression that social categories of race and ethnicity are somehow genetically verifiable."

What these tests can do is prove a relationship between two males or females who share the same DNA whether they share the same surname or not.  

They can also prove the Croatan/Lumbee, the Redbones, the Melungeons, Smiling Indians, Brass Ankles and other similar groups are related. Below are the works of anthropologists, ethnologists, historians, etc., many who worked with the Smithsonian in the late 1800s and early 1900s and later who seemed to have no doubt these "Little Races" were related.



"A hundred years ago a colony of Croatans settled in eastern Tennessee, on Newman's Ridge, in Hancock county.  They can't tell today where they came from, for tradition over 50 years isn't worth anything.  These are the people called Melungeons.  They are similar in racial characteristics to the Croatans, and Dr. Swan M. Burnett, a distinguished scholar and scientitst has traced by family names the connection between the Melungeons and the Croatans.  [1]



Red Springs, NC
Oct 12, 1889
Mr McDonald Furman

The name among them of Blanx or Blanc is French. The early Huguenot emigrants of that name came from the Department of the Mosell and those of the family who changed the Blanc to White, its English synonym, was designated as the 'Mosell" Whites and the name is now changed to Musslewhite. The French name of Bressi is now Bracy and Turbeville is now Troublefield. The Braceys and Troublefields live on the border of North Carolina and South Carolina and never intermarried with the Croatans or "Melange".

Henry Berry Lowrie takes his Christian name from Henry Berry one of the lost colonists of Roanoke as you will see by -------? to list in pamphlet. Many of the Lowrie's settled in Robeson - others went to the French Broad in Western N.C., and those in Robeson claim that David Lowrie Swain Ex Gov. and James Lowrie Robinson late Lt Gov of this State were of their stock. The tribe once stretched from Cape Fear to Pee Dee and the Redbones of your section are a part of the tribe as are the "Melungeons" of East Tennessee. The French immigrants callled the half breeds Melange or Mixed and the term evidently has been changed to "Melungeons".  [. [2]


Croatan Indians. The legal designation in North Carolina for a people evidently of mixed Indian and white blood, found in various e. sections of the state, but chiefly in Robeson co., and numbering approximately 5,000.  ...... Across the line in South Carolina are found a people, evidently of similar origin, designated "Red bones." In portions of w. N. C. and E. Temn. are found the so-called "Melungeons" (probably from French melangi', 'mixed') or "Portuguese," apparently an offshoot from the Croatan proper, and in Delaware are found the "Moors." All of these are local designations for peoples of mixed race with an Indian nucleus differing in no way from the present mixed-blood remnants known as Pamunkey, Chicka- hominy, and Nansemond Indians in Virginia, excepting in the more complete loss of their identity. In general, the physical features and complexion of the persons of this mixed stock incline more to the Indian than to the white or negro. See Mi-tis, Mixed bloods. [3]


The Croatan applied for recognition by the United States as Cherokee, but it was denied and the Cherokee acknowledge no relationship, having visited the Croatan country on a tour of inspection. There is a queer offshoot of the Croatan known as "Malungeons," in South Carolina, who went there from this state ; another the "Redbones," of Tennessee. Mr. Mooney has made a careful study of both of these branches also. [4]


Though these people principally reside in Robeson county there are settlements of them in both the Carolinas and in East Tennessee, where they are known as Melungeans, a corruption of the French Melange, or mixed, a  description of them given by the early French settlers.  [5]


There are some of these Croatoans on Newman’s ridge, in Tennessee.  [6] 


At one time the Croatans were known as 'Redbones,' and there is a street in Fayetteville so called because some of them once lived on it. They are known by this name in Sumpter County, S. C., where they are quiet and peaceable, and have a church of their own. They are proud and high-spirited, and caste is very strong among them. [7] 


There is in Hancock county, Tennessee, a tribe of people known by the local name of Malungeons or Melungeons. Some say they are a branch of the Croatan tribe, others that they are of Portuguese stock. [7] 


The Croatan tribe lives principaly in Robeson county, North Carolina, though there is quite a number of them settle in counties adjoining in North and South Carolina. In Sumter county, South Carolina, there is a branch of the tribe, and also in east Tennessee. In Macon county, North Carolina, there is another branch, settled there long ago. those living in east Tennessee are called "Melungeons", a name also retained by them here, which is corruption of 'Melange', a name given them by early settlers (French), which means mixed.''  [8] 


In 1897, Mr. Mooney wrote to Charles McDonald Furman that, "He felt that the Croatans, Redbones, Melungeons, Moors, and Portuguese were all local names for mixed Indian races along the Atlantic seaboard, with westward drift into the mountains." And stated, "It would be worth while of local investigators to go into the subject systematically. I think possibly the Indian remnants may have married with the convict apprentice importation of early colony days as well as with the free Negro element." [9] 


Since the above communications was read before the Society I have received from several sources valuable information in regard to the Melungeons; but the most important contribution bearing on the subject, as I believe, is the little pamphlet published by Hamilton Mc Millan, A. M., on “Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony” (Wilson, N.C., 1888). Mc Millan claims that the Croatan Indians are the direct descendant of this colony. What connection I consider to exist between the Melungeons and the Croatan Indians, as well as other material I have accumulated in regard to the Melungeons, will be made the subject of another communication which is now in preparation.    * *Read before the Society at its regular meeting, February 5, 1889.   [10] 


All these above families not only settled in Robeson County but also scattered further south and west through central South Carolina. In fact, in central South Carolina some names show up from that original northern center in Granville County which one does not find in Cumberland and Robeson Counties in that period. I presume that they came directly from Granville County into South Carolina. These are families like Taylor, Hicks, Bunch, and Strickland. Many of these northern migrants married into the Cheraw and Peedee and almost absorbed these native South Carolina tribes. Later in South Carolina other family names show up - Willis, Ware, Dial - who appear to be Indians of this same “northern” stock. However, we cannot find these family names in the north. These family names may have originated with blacks, whites, or native Indians who married into these scattered Indian Families.

...th
is migration did not stop Georgia and Florida but continued west and in census records in the 1830’s in western Louisiana you begin to see names of Indian families from South Carolina.  As far as I can tell, most of these families moved on further west into east Texas. The Bass’, Dials, Wares, Willis’, etc., particularly, tarried awhile in western Louisiana and then moved on to east Texas. However, while they were in Louisiana they intermarried quite heavily with a group of Indians who were the remnants of small tribes from the Mobile, Alabama area - Chatot, Bayagoula, and others; that is to say, individuals from these South Carolina families married native Indians to form what is known by whites in that area as the “Redbones” of western Louisiana. This is quite a prolific group. I do not know how this group of people refers to themselves. I simply know that local nickname for them. I have heard that some of them identify as Choctaws and some as Spanish, but I cannot verify this. I do know that Indians coming in from South Carolina married into this local group and then moved on west leaving members of their families there in western Louisiana. Some of these same South Carolina Indians - Hicks, Strickland, Bunch, etc. – moved northwest into east Tennessee in the 1830’s and 1840’s. There they joined another stream of Indian pioneer of this same Granville County, North Carolina stock moving south from Newman’s Ridge on the Tennessee - Virginia border.   [11]


GOINS v. INDIAN TRAINING SCHOOL

This case involved the Goins from Sumpter County - known as 'Smiling Indians' after James Smiling who were related to this  Goins family
who moved up to Robeson County. 

"I, LI Parrott, clerk of the court for Sumter County, said state, do hereby
certify that the families of Smilings and Goins of this county have been
known as "Red Bones"
ever since I have been acquainted with the people
. Mr. McDonald Furman, now deceased, took a great deal of trouble several years ago to establish the fact that they were...of the Indian race...they are looked upon as a separate race, neither white nor negro."


"I know William Goins, father of these parties. I visited them in South Carolina once about 6 years ago. The general reputation I got down there was  that they were Indian people. They were supposed to be Indians. I have lived in Robeson county all my life and I am perfectly familiar with the Indian people up here. From my association, being in the home of old man Goins and his family and from the investigation I have made of the people there, my opinion is that on the mother's side plaintiffs are Indians and on the father's side Malungeans. The Rev William Goins is not a typical Indian by feature, he is a mixture between white and Indian."


Hamilton McMillan, witness for the defendants: 
"I am a resident of Robeson County; I am now 78 years of age. I represented Robeson County in the state legislature in 1885 and 1887. I am familiar with the Act of 1885 designating certain indians of Robeson as Croatan Indians; I introduced the bill myself. I was acquainted with the Indians of Robeson County at the time the Act of 1885 was passsed designating them as croatan indians. I had been investigating their history for several years before that. I have them the designation of croatan indians in the Act. I wanted to give them some designation. There was a tribe known as croatan tribe on croatan island, it was an honorable name and it was a complete designation...The indians designated as croatan indians were living in Robeson County...none of them lived in sumter sc as far as i know. I had the Act of 1887 passed to establish a normal school for the croatan indians of Robeson County..."Question by the court to McMillan: Do these people here call themselves Croatans?Answer: No sir, they call themselves malungeans. [12]


By Professor Stephen B. Weeks, Ph.D., Trinity College, North Carolina. Page 28-29

At one time the Croatans were known as 'Redbones,' and there is a street in Fayetteville so called because some of them once lived on it. They are known by this name in Sumpter County, S. C., where they are quiet and peaceable, and have a church of their own. They are proud and high-spirited, and caste is very strong among them.

There is in Hancock county, Tennessee, a tribe of people known by the local name of Malungeons or Melungeons. Some say they are a branch of the Croatan tribe, others that they are of Portuguese stock. They differ radically, however, in manners and customs from the accounts which we have received of the Croatans. Four articles in The Arena for the current year, by Miss Will Allen Domgoole on "The Malungeons, a Forgotten People," "The Malungeon Family Tree," "The Disfranchisement of the Malungeons," and "Malungeon Music." [13] 



The Brass Ankles appear to have been a name given to these people near Hell Hole Swamp and Monck's Corners in South Carolina, much later than Redbone, Croatan, Melungeon and others. The Broadway play by Dubose Heyward; BRASS ANKLE in 1930  seems to be the first times it is found in print. 


Book Review 

Findlay Morning Republican July 13, 1931
"Many witnessed and were thrilled at the presentation of "Brass Ankle" a drama by Dubose Heyward on the New York stage last winter. Alice Brady headed the cast for this drama, which was a tragedy, which is a different treatment of the race problem.  "Brass Ankle" has been published by Farrar & Rinehart, and those not fortunate in traveling to New York to witness it may read it as they sit by their firesides. One understands the "Brass Ankle" a little better after reading what Dr. Wainwright, one of the characters of the drama says: "I suppose there is no more tragic, no more complex social problem in America today than that of the Brass Ankle."

"No one really know exactly what they are except that there is no doubt but that they have Negro blood. They won't let them in the white schools; they are too proud to go to the Negro, so they gave them a little school of their own. .....My father was on the board and helped arrange it. When the children registered, he brought their cards home to show us. In the space for race, they had all written 'Indian'.  "Tragic wasn't it?  Some of them have Indian blood and the copper cast gave the tribe their name, but we've poured white and black in on top of it.  We've made the mongrels -- and denied them even a race."


American Speech      Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr., 1943     Miscellaneous Notes ...


"Of Professor Farr's list of Tennessee expressions (American Speech, 15; 446-448 )several are quite common in South Carolina.  Brass ankle, for 'mulatto,' is very often used by the older generation, though less often by younger speakers.  My father thinks that the term originated in the neighborhood of Moncks Corner, South Carolina, where the descendants of a Portuguese colony who had intermarried with Negroes and afterwards married largely within their own group were noted for their brass bracelets and anklets.  To this group the white and Negro settlers in the neighborhood applied the name brass ankle, which was later extended to any mulatto.

Bennettsville May 17, 1893
Mr. McDonald Furman (Excerpted)

My Dear Sir

Yours of 13th inst is before me and in reply let me say that I not only appreciate your laudable desire to rescue the traditions of an obscure race, sometimes wronged, from oblivion, but to call the public mind to a number of important facts of our brief history, both secular and religious, which in the eager haste of this fast age, our people are liable to forget......

....The question now upon your mind, of which you write me is not unworthy your research. And I wish that I were able to give you more information than I can. Of course the people of "mixed breed," that we have among us in Marlborough are not known as "Redbones," and not until recently have they been called "Croatans," a name which some of them are now adopting. 


For generations, they have claimed to have been of "Portuguese" extraction, while commonly the white people have thought them mulattos.
J.A.W. Thomas

[1] Secret of the Croatan Tribe-- St. Louis Dispatch
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/revel.html  

[2] Red Springs, NC Oct 12, 1889   Hamilton McMillan
http://historical-melungeons.com/malungeons_hamilton_mcmillan.html  

[3] Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology - Ethnology - 1907  page 365   [Also Published: Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico - by Frederick Webb Hodge - Indians of North America - 1911]
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/smithsonian1907.html

[4]  The North Carolina Booklet: Great Events in North Carolina History  General Society of the Daughters of the Revolution North Carolina Society. 1916
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/booklet1916.html

[5]  The Denver Evening Post, (Denver, CO) Tuesday, October 10, 1899  -- The Croatans A Class of People about Whom Even the Dictionary Knows Nothing 
http://historical-melungeons.com/croatans21.html

[6]  Atlanta Constitution November 7, 1897  - Bill Arp
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/arp.html

[7]  HE LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE: ITS FATE AND SURVIVAL. (Reprinted from Papers Am. Hist. Asso., Vol. iv., No. 4., 1891.)   By Professor Stephen B. Weeks, Ph.D., Trinity College, North Carolina.
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/weeks.html

[8] July 17, 1890  --Red Springs, North Carolina Hamilton McMillan

[9]   James Mooney, The Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute 1897

[10]  A NOTE ON THE MELUNGEONS   By Swan M. Burnett, M. D., Washington   October 1889
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/swan.html

[11] Cherokee Communities of the South  - Robert K. Thomas 
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/rk_thomas.html

[12] Smiling Indians
http://www.historical-melungeons.com/smiling.html

[13] The lost colony of Roanoke : its fate and survival
https://digital.lib.ecu.edu/13444

Sunday, October 5, 2014

The Portuguese - Not a Cover Story

Over the years many researchers, authors, speakers, etc., have reported the Portuguese ancestry of the Melungeons was a cover story made up by these people called Melungeons to hide their African ancestry.  Recently I received a comment to this blog by one of these author/speakers regarding the 1848 publication of their 'Legend" - he wrote;
“The article was published shortly after the illegal voting trials in Tennessee…” That fact alone provides ample reason for the Melungeons to “hide their identity” or to claim an ancestry other than their own. "   
While he went on to say he wasn't saying they did but -- "they had reason to deny African ancestry,....  for fear of being enslaved." 

What did the Melungeons tell the reporter of the "Present race of Melungeons"? 

''These Portuguese people intermixed with the Indians, and subsequently their descendants (after the advances of the whites into this part of the state) with the negroes and the whites..."
So are we to believe that Vardy Collins, or perhaps his wife, made up a story about their ancestry because they were afraid they would be enslaved? Yet in the next breath said 'our children did intermix with the Africans'  -- we must presume Vardy Collins, his wife, or whoever 'made up this cover story' didn't give two hoots whether someone came along and enslaved their children?  SMH  ---Seriously?

They do not take into account these people who were charged with illegal voting had the charges dropped, convincing their accusers they were of Portuguese ancestry and not African. Why would they be afraid of being enslaved a few months later?


There are court records spread over the 19th century in many counties and states across the nation that questioned the ancestry of these people who were called Melungeons. In early 1800 the Hagan who married into the Ivey family proved by neighbors they were called Portuguese since the time of the Revolution. 


In 1871 Judge Giles Leitch testified before  1871 North Carolina Joint Senate and House Committee on the ancestry of the people of Robeson County  (known as a branch of the South Carolina and East Tennessee families) and what did he say?  

"I think they are a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese, and Indian; about half of them have straight black hair, and many of the characteristics of the Cherokee Indians in our State; then, as they amalgamate and mix, the hair becomes curly and kinky, and from that down to real woollen hair; I think they are mixed Portuguese, Spaniard and Indians; I mean to class the Spaniards and Portuguese as one class, and the Indians as another class; I do not think that in class of population there is much negro blood at all; of that half of thecolored population that I have attempted to describe all have been always free; I was born among them, and I reckon that I know them perfectly well."
The researchers, authors, speakers, etc.,  of today are not claiming this 'cover story' to 'hide their real ancestry' for a lack of evidence of the Portuguese/Spanish people inhabiting Virginia and the Carolinas in the early days of this country, there are numerous documents.   They are apparently making this claim to further their own *theories* as to the origin of the Melungeons for personal reasons. 

I've not found one article from the late 1800s to early 1900s who claim the Melungeons were nothing but a group of African men and white women, quite the contrary -- almost all of the published reports stated they showed, Portuguese, Indian, and sometimes African ancestry.



Virginia Easley DeMarce


Looking at Legends-Lumbee and Melungeon: Applied genealogy and the Origins of Tri-racial Isolate Settlements, National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81 (March 1993): 24-45.   Excerpt;  page 37

"The fact that the Portuguese were noted seafarers for centuries. Portuguese laborers--particularly sailors, fisherman, and tradesmen such as net menders and sail menders--were common in towns and harbors throughout the western world, including England and her colonies; and English ships used some Portuguese sailors. In early America, references to them appear in colonial records from New France [Canada] to New England, to the Gulf. There is no reason to doubt that they also sailed into Virginia's ports, and their extensive contact with the English shipping trade might well explain their apparently rapid acquisiton of the English language and their quick acculturaton in Virginia."

Washington Post  1902     PHASE IN ETHNOLOGY

Mr. James Mooney Investigates Early Portuguese Settlements.

Mr. James Mooney, who has just returned from Indian Territory, where he has been making a study of the Kiowa tribe for the Bureau of Ethnology, has also during his career as an anthropologist done considerable work in the way of investigating the Portuguese settlements along the Atlantic coast of the United States, a subject about which less is known than most any other phase of the modern ethnology of America. All along the southern coast there are scattered here and there bands of curious people, whose appearance, color, and hair seem to indicate a cross or mixture of the Indian, the white, and the negro. Such, for example, are the Pamunkeys of Virginia, the Croatan Indians of the Carolinas, the Malungeons of Tennessee, and numerous other
peoples who in the days of slavery were regarded as free negroes and were
frequently hunted down and enslaved. Since the war they have tried hard by act of legislature and other wise to establish their Indian ancestry.

Wherever these people are found there also will the traveler or investigator passing through their region encounter the tradition of Portuguese blood or descent, and many have often wondered how these people came to have such a tradition or, in view of their ignorance, how they came to even know of the name of Portugal or the Portuguese. The explanation is, however, far simpler than one might imagine. In the first place, the Portuguese have always been a seagoing people, and according to Mr. Mooney, who has looked up the subject, the early records of Virginia and the Carolinas contain notices of Portuguese ships having gone to wreck on the coasts of these States and of the crews settling down and marrying in with Indians and mulattoes.

Moreover, there are records of Portuguese ships having sailed into Jamestown Bay as early as 1655, and since then there has been more or less settlement of Portuguese fishermen and sailors from Maine to Florida. Now it has been the history of the Portuguese race that wherever they settled they mixed in with the darker peoples forming the aboriginal populations of the countries  occupied by Portuguese settlers, and this is the reason and cause of the Portuguese admixture among the tribes along the coast of the United States.


In further proof of this he calls attention to the case of a colony of
Portuguese fishermen who settled on the coast of Massachusetts a few years ago. These settlers have nothing whatever to do with the white or Yankee population around them, but are intermarrying and intermixing among and with the small remnant of the Narragansett Indians who have survived down to the present day. In short, it has been the history of the Portuguese that wherever they settled along the Atlantic coast they have intermixed and intermarried among the remnants of the Indian tribes that were once the sole
proprietors of that region.

Thursday, September 25, 2014

Indians of Newmans Ridge






THE MORRISTOWN  GAZETTE

NOTES AND DOTS.
Sneedville, Aug. 16, 1878.
To the Editor of the Morristown Gazette :
Yesterday I took l. M. Jarvis horse and rode out to Joshua Davis', ten miles from here. Arriving at his residence "he was three miles off on a farm he owns in Claiborne county, so I took one of his horses and went to see him.  I found him engaged in the laudable business of building a school house on the lower part of his farm. He is a grandfather, yet, he said, he was taking right hold, hewing logs and doing' full days' work right along beside younger men, though he had not performed much out-door labor for a dozen 'years, having , .worked in his.,
blacksmith shop. He has several mineral springs near where he is working, the  water from one of which he freely drinks, which he thinks helps him. These springs are of little note a great ways from where they are situated, yet they are of local importance, and are resorted to by the people in the vicinity to their great benefit. While I was there, Mr. Hord, of New Canton, Hawkins - county, was visiting these springs, and, as he thinks, to his benefit. Mr. Hord is an old man between 70 and 80 years of age. If the great public knew of these springs they would be considerably resorted to -- as it is, it will be some years before they will be visited by invalids from great  distances, Mr. Davis thinks of pntting them in good condition, building houses and inviting patronage.- They are pleasantly situated and may, in ; time, be made objects of great interest. They are not at the bottom of hills, but come up from beneath the surface of the earth, which seems to rest upon a rock foundation,"

Returning to town called upon Sampson Williams. He is a man of some note in these parts, While he owns a large farm he has met with adversity, and like many who have been kinder to their neighbors than to themselves, have met with heavy losses. However, in his old age be has been taught by that expensive teacher, experience, and will hereafter avoid troubles which have, in times ' past, beset him. He has, for many years, held offices, such as post-master, deputy-sheriff, magistrate, &c but has passed ambition for office and taken out license as a lawyer. Mr. Jarvis has been initiating me into the history of the past, concerning Sneedville and vicinity. I was over on Blackwater creek, a famous section of Hancock county, on Thursday last. He has a farm there, on which he says is a most excellent chalybeate spring. It is resorted to for its efficacious waters.

Where the village of Sneedville is situated was once an Indian town. There are any quantity of flints half finished, scattered about over a wide extent in and around the village, showing that this was a place where they manufactured darts for their arrows, with which they killed their game. Many battle-axes, tomahawks, pestles, and remnants of Instruments and vessels of pottery used by the aborigines have been picked up in years gone by, so that now they are seldom found. Within a quarter of a mile of the court-house there is still visible a round-shaped knoll which may be a mound. It was once much sharper than it now is, so sharp that cattle never resorted to it for rest. It has been ploughed over and cultivated; and is now very much flattened.. I have seen many mounds, and am inclined to express it as my opinion that this - is a regular mound.

It could soon be determined, however, by digging into the middle of it down near to the level of the land around it. In size it was probably aboutt 30 feet wide in its extreme width and 60 feet long. It was built, if built at all, egg-shaped, or nearly so, and was very regular in its outline.

On a hill, not far from here, there is any amount of petrifcations. Mr Jarvis has furnished me with many specimens. They are vegetables turned to stone by some process not well understood by the unscientific. The curious thing about them to me is, because they are upon a hill, in limestone and gravelly soil. Most petrifactions are found in the earth in low and wet places. The bodies of human beings are sometimes turned to stone, but they are always, so far as I am  aware, found in low places, where silver or mineral waters are  found. Possibly some of the specimens found near here are animal petrifactions. Certainly, whole snakes are petrified, on Newman's ridge, and perhaps elsewhere hereabouts. But I have not time to stop to examine those curiosities in their several localities. I have some of them in my possession, which I will show you when I return home.

Right here, allow me to say that I am in correspondence with the officers of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C, who request me to collect all evidences of these singular formations, and transmit information and specimens to them. which I am doing, and respectfully request those who have any Indian battle-axes, tomahawks, arrow heads pottery, or other implements or trinkets once in posession of the Indians who formerly roamed over this country as "lords of creation," to send them to me at Morristown.

It is particularly requested that information shall be sent to me where the specimens were found and by whom they were sent. I am not authorized to pay anything for them. I have already some specimens collected, and want many more. Curious petrifactions are also invited. If left with John H. Tate & Co., they will find me. I am greatly under obligations to L. M. Jarvis, Esq., for hospitalities favors, information and other benefits for which I return him thanks on your behalf. Sine I was in this county last winter a great change for the better has taken place.

Berry has nearly, if not quite, broken up moonshining, and there is no ''grocery" kept in this place. Hence, peace and quiet prevail,  which proves that the shooting and cutting, so frequent for a short time last winter were sporadic rather than chronic.

Several new buildings have been built in this village. The Methodists have erected a very neat meet house, and William Y. Campbell has just finished a substantial and neat dwelling house. I hear the sound of the plane and other tools which speak well for Sneedville.
-------------------------------------------------------
Powell House, Rogersville, )
August 20. 1878.

To the Editor of the Morristown Gazette

My last letter to you was written at Sneedville. One or two items were omitted, You will see by the returns of the election in Hancock county, that the majority in favor of W. H. Smith for County Court was only four over R. D. Green, his Republican competitor, It was said, when I left Sneedville,  on the 17th, that Mr. Green intends to contest, on the ground that several of the ballots on which the name Green appeared without any prefix or given name were thrown out uncounted.

James Green received 33 votes and R. D. contests that part of the rejected votes were wrongfully rejected, because he can find more than four persons who voted on their ticket the name of Green, intended their vote for the contestant X . The Democrats claim that any name without a prefix or given name should in all cases be thrown out but, to say the least, here is a case for lawyers to disagree.

I am told that a beech stump standing in the village of Sneedville is petrified. George Mitchell, who lives some miles out from Sneedville, just on the edge of Hawkins county, showed me a piece of bark which he said he took from it, and which seems to be partially petrified if not wholly.

Lewis M. Jarvis also told me that there was a mine of red lead 'and another' of yellow ochre, both of which a painter here had ground and made into excellent paint. These are valuable minerals.

The bar of Hancock county consists of six members, - viz ;" L  M.Jarvis, Sampson Williams; William B. Davis, H. K. Herd and Messrs. Doughty, and Coleman. . three reside in town and  three on their farms, 'eight  and nine miles from town, in different directions becauset hey cannot support themselves by their practice alone.

Leaving Sneedville on Saturday, I took a seat with  Joseph Brooks who was going out to his farm five miles away, behind two horses, and accompanied him four miles, when he turned away to go to his farm and then I called upon the venerable Dr. Mitchell, who had spent a long life as physician in Sneedville, but who has retired from practice and resides on his farm situated on Clinch river.

The old gentleman was pleased to meet with some one who understood the art of budding fruit trees, and had me teach his son and grandson the art, for, old as he his 72 years of- age he desired to improve the quality of his orchards. And I will here observe. that the people in Claiborne and Hancock counties are way behind the times in this respect, taken as a whole, and need to be taught how to improve their orchards.  As a general thing, the Horse apple prevails, though the Limber Twig has been shown a  reference. In some in stances a very few have purchased new kinds of trees, to the number of 100 or more. The peaches are generally the kind - which were grown 75 years ago, though there is beginning to be an improvement in the purchase and planting of the new kinds. Both apples and peaches, as a rule, are of the late kinds. There are plenty of both apples and peaches along the whole distance I have traveled the past thirteen days, and men, women, and boys and girls are busily engaged in drying large quantities of them.

Saturday, just at night, found me at the hospitable door of William B. Davis, who heartily bid me welcome to his bed and- board. For traveling over rough roads under the influence of a scorching sun, I was tired and ready to accept of a good harbor for the night. Mr. Davis resides on a farm on Blackwater creek, consisting of the very moderate number of nine hundred and sixty acres. He is and has been a man of considerable importance, both at home and abroad, and besides being one of the six lawyers of his county, is  P. M. of Blackwater P. O.

Sunday morning the family started off for meeting, as there was to be baptizing in the Clinch river. Elders George Davis, John Davis and Click had been holding a two weeks meeting in the Davis meeting house, and a number of persons had been converted, and were that day to be buried in baptism with Christ, according to the practice of the Baptists. The place for baptizing was a mile or more from the meeting house, and on the way Mr. Davis showed me his father's farm, which is situated immediately on Clinch river, was settled 70 or 80 years ago, and stated that a bunch of asparagus is still growing which was planted the same time,

This led him to point out the place where was once an Indian village.  Specimens of the rude pottery of the aborigines are still found scattered about, and then he gave me a piece of Indian history, which is new to me, which he learned some years ago, in Arkansas, when he was Indian agent among the Cherokees at Fort Gibson. He learned it from old Jim , who was then sub-Chief. Jim told him that many, many years ago, a band of some 200 young men of this tribe left and went west to explore the country and find new and better hunting grounds, because, I suppose, they were encroached upon by the greedy whites.

They were never more beard of. But it seems when the Cherokees were transported to their new home in Arkansas that they found traces of an old Indian village, and specimens of pottery similar to those used by the Cherokees and made only by them. On Inquiry, the Cherokees found that their lost band went out to the head waters of the Arkansas river and settled there, and coming in contact with the Indians of the plains were annihilated.

Soon we came to the place of baptizing.  The services were conducted by Elder Click. Six persons were baptized. First, an old man who had already entered upon "the sear and yellow leaf of life,'  Brother Rogers, who had attained the age of sixty-six years; then a young man, followed by three youths fifteen to sixteen years of age, and a young woman. The company was orderly and the scene impressive. The crowd returned to the meeting-house where were to be held other, services and I passed over the river and on towards Lee Valley P. O.

A few miles ahead I found the road flocked by a union, basket meeting. Passing through, it I took a seat under the shade of a tree, supposing myself to be an entire stranger, but soon your correspondent, "Clinch." came along and made me feel quite at home.'

The forenoon meeting over, a recess of an hour and a half was had when preaching  recommenced. These meetings were conducted by local preachers ------preachers to the manner born, I mean-  a  Brown,  a Davis and others whose names I did not learn. It was an  occasion of considerable interest.

The name of --Trent is mouthed about as often in that section as Noe is in Hamblen county.  Clinch put me on his horse, whether I would or not, and walked himself three miles to bis father s residence, where I stopped over Sunday night.

On the the way we stopped and called upon George, son of Dr. Mitchell. George gave me some small specimens of petrifactions which are rare. . . .., Among them a bora of some animal I know not of. It is some two inches long with the rings around it in regular order, showing that it was an old animal. - The petrifaction is perfect. He has an Indian pipe eight or nine inches long, made in the form of a duck, which I would like for the Smithsonian Institute, Washington.

I was well entertained by Clinch and his father, William Berry, and on  Monday morning, pursued my weary way. The sun shown out clear, warm and oppressive, and at about one o'clock I reached the neat and attractive residence of John Starnes, where I found Dr. B. B, Owens and family, of your place. His wife is a daughter of Mr. Starnes, and she has a sick sister, on whom the Doctor is specially waiting. The issue of life and death is still uncertain, but if an attentive physician and the unremitting care of a mother and sister can restore her to health she will survive. Everything that can add to her comfort is provided by a devoted father. Oh what little heaven is there in such a house.

The doctor told me of a fool-hardy performance of a young man, in District No. 2 in Hawkins county, which resulted in his death. Tivis Cook was, on July 21, at a neighbor's house. His neighbor had a sweet apple tree. The apples were hardly medium sized. He bantered the owner to eat as many apples as be would, but the contest was not accepted. Cook then said he would see how many apples he could eat, and after cramming into his stomach 20, or, possibly, a few more, took a recess and went to the spring to drink, with the intention of returning to his task. But after drinking he was taken sick and vomited, but threw up only cider. He continued to grow worse and worse, and Dr. Owens was called to attend him.

He attempted to relieve the young man by vomiting and purging, but could get no operation, because, the excessive and inordinate stuffing had forced the pumice of the apples out of his stomach undigested, and they lodged in the small intestines in a compact mass. Cook died on the 24th of July.  Moral young men, never try to jump as far, run as far, or lift as much as you can, for fear of being ruptured do not cram your stomachs, beyond their capacity to digest food. Remember, always, that enough is as good as a feast,  and be content, for fear that a like death, will overtake you.

Coming over Clinch Mountain I found myself at the house of Andrew, he is a very old man of whom everybody speaks well.  He has a chalybeate spring on his farm to which invalids resort. Stopped over Monday night with Dr. Gillenwaters. He told me that there is a fatal disease among cattle in his neighborhood he lives five miles from this town which the people know nothing about. The cattle are taking with swelling in the thighs, suffer intensely and die, I have heard of it elsewhere, but know no remedy for it.

Arrived here .this morning, but have  not time, nor have you roomfor more, this time. You mixed up my Mulberry Gap and Sneedville letters curiously. You left off the Sneedville date and placed the last paragraph 'of the Mulberry Gap letter at the bottom of the Sneedville one.

We had a tremendous rain in this region last night, and more today. - J. S. W. ;