Monday, August 20, 2012

Indian Traders Part II

Everything has a beginning and the mixed race families who would later be called Melungeons, Redbones, Lumbee, etc., began on the Chippoakes Creek in Virginia. On the map found here  the red dot shows the land where the Gibsons and Chavis lived on the Upper Chippoakes Creek near the town of the Quiyoughcohannock Indians. Gibby Gibson, along with Thomas and Francis are buried across the river at Sandy Point [Lightfoot Cemetery] original capital of the Paspahegh Indians. Living there in the early 1600s were the Gibson, Chavis, Sweat, Ivey, and Collins, found quietly living among the great Indian traders.

Captain Robert Hix of the Saponi Fort and his father in law were Indian traders and some of the earliest Quakers in Virginia. The Quakers were always friendly to the Indians and it seems natural that where the Quakers went the Indians might follow. John Collins who is found in the area of the Gibson, Ivey, Bass, Sweat, etc., along the James early on married [and/or his son]  into the Quaker Tooke and Crew families, both would later be found in the Quaker records in New Kent County.  In the will of John Collins 1694 Surry County, he mentions his sisters Rebecca Goodman, wife of William and Jean/Jane Newby, also found in the Quaker records.

Quaker records of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting, Virginia, 1739-1793
author: Brewer, Mary Marshall

Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting was started before 1722 in Hanover County. "It soon encompassed Friends living in the counties of Albemarle, Amelia, Bedford, Campbell, Caroline, Charles City (part), Goochland, Halifax, Hanover, Henrico, Louisa and Orange counties and Richmond City."--Introd.
These Quaker families are reported to have removed to New Kent/ Hanover County where they started the Quaker Meeting house there. One Joseph Newby, possibly related to John Collins was part of the 'great revival' of the 1740s, coming from North Carolina to New Kent County MM  to preach. It is around this same time the people of New Kent became worrisome over the large amount of Quakers in the county and began fining, jailing and harassing them for not taking oaths, paying tithes, etc.  

It is at this same time Samuel Bunch along with the Gibson, Collins, etc., were charged with concealing tithes. Thomas Gibson also fined for not paying tithes is the brother of Valentine Gibson, Valentine's three sons also married Quakers. We know the Gibsons and Bunch, and possibly Collins through the Tooke and Crew families, were Quakers. 

Louisa County
28 May 1745, "Ordered that William Hall, Samuel Collins, Thomas Collins, William Collins, Samuel Bunch, George Gibson, Benjamin Branham, Thomas Gibson, and William Donathan be summoned to appear at the next Court to answer the presentment of the Grandjury this day made against them for concealing tithables within twelve months past." They pled not guilty. On 27 August 1745 the jurors failed to agree on a verdict, and at the next court some of the jurors failed to appear. On 28 May 1746 the defendants argued that some of the jurors were from the same parish as they, so they would be gainers by a guilty verdict but the court rejected their argument. The jury brought in a special veridct which was referred for argument the next court, but the result was not recorded [Orders 1742-8, 152, 157, 166-7, 172, 175, 183, 193].
It appears this case dragged on almost a year or more, jury couldn't reach a verdict, then some didn't show up, and then they brought in a 'special verdict' and referred to the next court? Does this sound like 'mulatto men concealing their mulatto wives'?  

Here we find the Quakers William Echols and his son in law Moses Hendrick with the Melungeon families of Shadrach Goins and Champ Gibson, living alongside the Indian  Sizemores. Some researchers have bent over backwards to prove these families from Louisa County were African because they were associated with the Goins and other 'Sub Saharan' families. By the same standards then would they pronounce these families all Melungeons?  All Quakers?  All Indians?
16 Apr 1761     Halifax Co., VA. William and wife Mary Russell of Raleigh Parish (also spelled Royley),  Amelia Co., for £200 conveyed to Daniel Easley of King William Parish, Cumberland Co., two tracts of land: 691 acres on the south side of Banister River and another tract on the same river, other tract beginning at Alexander Nelson’s corner, to lines of Echols and Sizemore. Wit: Ezekiel Slaughter, James Daniel, Thomas Lacy, Jr. Signed by mark “X.” Mary, wife of sd Russell relinquished her right of dower. [43] Note: This land was granted 12 May 1759 to him next or near William Eckhols. They lived on Polecat Creek. Note: Polecat Creek was part of the Bannister River.
Halifax County Road Orders
21 Mar 1771 Road Order: George Combs appointed Surveyor of the Road leading from Boyd’s Road to Roberts’ Road...ordered that he, with male tithables belonging to Moses Hendrick, William Echols, Sr., John Anderson, Mead Anderson, Shadrach Gowing, Harry Hereford, John Chapman, John Hood, Nipper Adams, William Donathan, Thomas Spencer, William Mays, Nathan Sullins, Charles Henderson, George Wood, George Stubblefield, Daniel Easely, Stephen Easely, Joshua Adams, Thomas Lovelace, Samuel Wilson, George Brown, Champ Gibson, and William Chandler, do forthwith lay open and clear the said Road, and they then return to their former road.  (Halifax County, VA, Court Orders, 7:80) 
William Echols daughter Hannah married to Vardrey McBee.  Rhoda, daughter of Hannah Nichols and Vardrey McBee married or at least had children with Jordan Gibson who resided at Thickety Creek, Spartanburg, South Carolina. 
Spartanburg Co., S.C. Minutes of the County Court 1785-1799 : Ordered that the child Durrel McBee which was pretended to be bound to Vardry McBee be delivered to the care of its mother Rhoda McBee , alias Gibson & Jordan Gibson her Husband"
Gibson, Collins Bunch., had moved to Haw and Eno Rivers in Orange County and lived along the Trading Path.  Gibsons, Goins, Bass, etc., went from Bertie County, home of Tuscarora and Saponi, to the Pee Dee River area where Saura town is on 1725 map. George Gibson son of John Gibson of Bertie County is found in Orange County with Thomas Gibson of Louisa.  Walter Gibson is documented as a 'Chieftan' of the Tuscarora in Bertie County.

As the mixed Indian families left Charles City County moving into New Kent/Hanover and the Carolinas they are still found amongst the Indian traders.  In 1751 Edward Nicks, son in law of Thomas Gibson who died 1734 in Hanover, and Thomas' son John, are found on the Dan River in Granville County the area that would become Rockingham and Caswell, Besides a second John Gibson we find Christopher Gist and his son Nathaniel, said to be father of 'Sequoyah' and 'husband' of Wurteh,  also living there.

Christopher Gist had just returned from his trip to the Ohio Indians and returning to his home on the Yadkin River found they had removed. The Jefferson-Fry map surveyed by William Churton in 1749 shows at Mulberry Fields 'Gyst Jr', probably one of the first settlers in Wilkes County. Christopher reported his son,  Nathaniel,  was living with 'his people' in the Cherokee Village after his Ohio trip.  A William Lawson also residing on the Dan River may be related to the Lawsons on Newmans Ridge.

One story has William Lawson having children with "Wurteh."  A David Lawson is supposedly the son of one Hooker out of Surry/Stokes County, North Carolina where many of the Melungeon/Indian families had roots. Samuel Hooker married Elizabeth Gibson who may have been the daughter of Valentine Gibson.  Samuel Hooker and George Sizemore are found in the Bowman DNA project  and the Hooker and Lawson are found in the Lawson project.  The daughter of William Hooker married Samuel Sizemore.  The Lawson family living in Hawkins County in 1845 also have Native American DNA as does the Freeman family.

Orange County, North Carolina

In Orange County, North Carolina we find records of Moses Riddle, later identified as an Indian in the tax records. The Collins of Orange County were residing on Indian lands by 1773. Peter Helton, a Cherokee, with Q DNA is also in Orange County, North Carolina.  From Jeff Weaver's New River Notes
William Austin was Born in the 1750s in Halifax Co., VA; Parents John Austin Jr. (abt 1720-abt 1795 Washington Co., TN) and Mary Mc Bee; His father John was the son of John Austin Sr. (d. about 1759 Cornwall Parish, Lunenburg Co., VA) and a Saponi Indian woman.
John Austin , Jr. along with she and Marry a Susquohanah Indian and Thomas Cattaba applied for a pass to the Cataba Nation being now on their journey to conclude a general peace with the Cattabas in behalf of the said nations and also presented three belts of Wampum to said Court by which the said Treaty was of be concluded. (Recording in the Rowan/Orange County (North Carolina) book, page 72 dated 19 April 1755.
The above Mary McBee is said to be the sister of Vardry McBee who married Hannah Echols. Jordan Gibson who married their daughter is said to be son of Gilbert Gibson of Louisa County and later went to Logan County, Kentucky from Spartanburg, South Carolina. The Austins are in Orange County, North Carolina and serve in the Virginia Militia alongside the Melungeon families. 

And so we find these Quaker and Indian families closely associated with the early Melungeon families. Is it merely coincidental we find these Melungeon families associated with the Quaker Tooke, Crew, Goodmans, Hix, Echols, Hendricks, etc., and the proven Native American families of Sizemore, Riddle, Austin, Helton, Lawson, Freeeman etc?  Is it merely coincidental as they relocate from the 1650s through 1800 they are found along the Indian trading paths or in the Indian trading towns? 

Is it merely coincidental they are found in Wilkes County near the old Cherokee town Mulberry Fields. Or that they left there and are found next along the old Indian lands along Panther Creek on Newman's Ridge -- where coincidentally the Cherokee boundary was drawn in 1785 - straight through Sneedville?  Is it coincidental the Melungeon families left the Pee Dee River area, moving over the mountains to join the other Indian families on Newman's Ridge and then settling on the Cherokee town of 'Sale Creek' in Hamilton County?

These are just a few of the notes in my files, much more research needs to be done on these families and in these counties. 



  1. need information on my Goodman family and on
    John Austin sr and his saponi wife and thier son
    John Austin jr and his wife Mary McBee

    Shirley Raymond

    1. Shirley, I believe we have communicated in the past. Re read content Hannah Austin was Saponi. Mary McBee was of the Susquehannock Tribe. A very important Tribe of that time in that particular region. Suggest read further records on that tribe. Tribe was listed along with other Tribes. I to mention, Powhatan Croatan Waiting for DNA results on my 89 year old Father. His Mother is a Descendent of Austin Line.

  2. I want to explore the possibility that my great-grandfather Phillip Graham, who was born in Powhatan, Virginia and lived in nearby Midlothian, was actually a Melungeon.I have traced him back to 1870 when he married my great grandmother Lucy Branch who was also born in Powhatan, Virginia. She lived in the Huguenot section of the town. Both she and Phillip were listed as Mulattos on the census reports.I have not been able to find any documentation on him before 1870 when he appeared with his children Charlotte and Edgar in a coal mining area in Midlothian.He had the trade of a cooper.
    Please tell me how I can begin to research the possibility that he might be a Melungeon?

  3. Does anyone have any information on the Peay and Stewart families from Lousia County, VA and if they are the same or related to the Peay and Stewarts in Chester/Fairfield, SC? Thanks


  4. I am seeking information on John Chapman. I am a maiden name Chapman. please email any info to

  5. I believe a Thomas Gibson, who married Elizabeth Worley in Henrico or Goochland VA. in the early 1700s, was the father of John Gibson who married Mary Lockett (same area)and may be the Gibsons you refer to in this blog. I know these Gibsons, Worleys and Locketts were living near each other in the early 1700's. I can find nothing that refers to the marriage of John Gibson, grandson of John Worley to Mary Lockett. I only know that both lived in this area and that she did marry a John Gibson and was widowed before 1796 and living in GA. on her brother, David Lockett's land. I believe this John Gibson and Mary Lockett Gibson were the parents of my 4x Great Grandfather, Elijah Gibson, b. 1771 VA. I have found records of them in Warren GA., but only clues to who his parents were. I am looking for any information on the above.

  6. The wife of William Hooker was Rooshie, Rushie Hilton. She was the sister to Peter Hilton married Jennie, Abraham Hilton married Charity Owl, Lucinda Hilton married John Mabe, other sons Eliphas, Thomas, Jeremiah and more. I found the references to Rooshee in the Cherokee applications made by descendants of the Hookers. They said she was a full squaw of the Cherokees. The same thing the Mabe's said about Lucinda Hilton.

  7. All you want to know about bhoomi jankari land record registration processes and requirements.

  8. Searching my family from The Hooker/Lawson line. Betsy said to have married Jacob W Hooker from Surry County NC migrated to Tennessee,West Virginia then to Ohio. I met a Ritchie Helton a few years ago in Columbus Ohio. I always knew he had Native blood.

  9. My Gardner Green family migrated from early Lunenburg Virginia to the Yadkin River 1777 and then on to Cherokee territory 96 District South Carolina. Gardner Green was a lieutenant in the Revolutionary War fighting for Britain under Colonel John Cotton. Another Lieutenant Edward Van where they took Orangeburg North Carolina. They migrated from Virginia to South Carolina with the Sizemore family. I believe Gardner Green and Edward Vann we're lieutenants over a mixed race group of men. Native Americans fought alongside British loyalists and were offered land. We cannot find one land record for Gardner Green. We find he has land bounding other land plats but it looks like all of his records were eliminated. Much like the Native Americans were assimilated and eliminated. I find his daughter Susanna Green married into the Jacob family. This is Jacob family married into the Riddell family Halifax Northampton North Carolina. I believe the Jacobs are in Edgefield South Carolina listed as black. Ironically these Jacobs and Riddell's were living among the Quakers Halifax Virginia and take him to court for running slaves? My cousin Sheila is related to the Vann family. Chief Joseph Vann was supposedly the richest man in the United States in 1850 for running slaves. So it was not uncommon among the Native Americans to do so.

    Over 200 applications from family members claiming Native American ancestry through Gardner Green listed on the 1835 Henderson rolls. Although this information was proved inaccurate it does not mean that Gardner green was not listed on some other roll using a Native American name. Quite common even amongst whites to take on a Native American name when living on the reservation. I believe Gardner Green is Tallonteeskee living on the McDaniel reservation 1827 McMinn Tennessee with wife Collunuskee. Gardner Green's sons Lewis Green and Henry Green can be found in 1810 Adair Kentucky. They married into the Biggs McCluskey Chilsress and Rowe families. Peter McCluskey can be found on Chief doublehead reservation with a pass to visit Samuel Riley husband of Chief Doublheads daughter. Another Doublehead daughter marries into the Biggs family. Also ties to the Hilderbrand family through marriage. David Hildebrand along with Tallontuskee and Collunuskee can be found on court records selling the McDaniel reservation.

    James McDaniel Indian has land and legal transactions Mcminn Tn with Esom Franklin from South Carolina. I find Isom Franklin Jr had borrowed a horse and is listed on his father's Will as owing the money to the person he borrowed the horse from to go to Indian Land. Isom Franklin is Gardner Greens neighbor in the old 96 District South Carolina Cherokee territory. Apparently Carolyn Franklin a relation to Isom Franklin married Meshack Green. Gardner Green and Mishack Green are related according to our DNA matches.

    So when our family sued the US government around 1900 for one hundred million dollars... for not allowing them to enroll as Native Americans.. it seems that there was something to it.

  10. Rebecca Goodman was John Collin's sister in law. She was the sister of his wife Mary Tooke.
    Rebecca and John are not related by blood.

    I am a descendant of William Goodman and Rebecca Tooke.
    Their grandson Henry Goodman Sr. was my 7th Great Grandfather.

  11. I want to make a correction
    I put Rebecca Goodman as a Tooke

    I read that John Collins married the widow Mary Tooke in his father-in-law John Barnes' house.
    That would indicate that John Barnes was Mary's father.
    John Collins refers to Rebecca Goodman as his sister-in-law which would seem to indicate that Rebecca is Mary's sister and John Barnes' daughter.

  12. I will fix that, it was 9 years ago and I have found much more since. I don't believe he identifies who the women are in his will but still a lot of confusion. If you would like to discuss this you can email me at


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